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Eco-friendly colorimetric nanofiber design : halochromic sensors with tunable pH-sensing regime based on 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline statistical copolymers functionalized with alizarin yellow R

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Abstract
Colorimetric nanofibers provide visual, easy-to-interpret sensors for personal use as well as advanced applications. The potential of 2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline (B) and 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (E) statistical copolymers as a universal, versatile support platform for nanofibrous halochromic sensor design is demonstrated. These polymers are electrospinnable from eco-friendly solvent systems, while wettability, moist adsorption capacity, and water-solubility of the membranes can be easily tuned by changing the B/E monomer ratio, ensuring wide applicability. The halochromic sensing functionality is introduced by incorporating the alizarin yellow R (AYR) chromophore, which is covalently modified with an ethyl ester-group or a short poly(2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline) chain, which is demonstrated to simultaneously prevent dye-leaching and allows tuning of the halochromic pH-sensing window. The colorimetric nanofibrous sensors reversibly respond toward aqueous solutions of different pH, (hydrochloric) acid and alkaline (ammonia) vapors, and several biogenic amines with detection limits as low as 5 ppb. Tunability of sensor responsivity, sensitivity, and pKa via manipulation of dye–polymer interactions, determined by support polymer structure and semi-crystallinity, as well as the chain length of the AYR-modified polymer, are discussed. Preliminary proof-of-principle studies indicate the potential of the developed sensors for sub-ppm biogenic amine vapor detection, which may serve as the basis for future applications in food packaging or breath analysis.
Keywords
alizarin yellow R, colorimetric sensors, eco-friendly electrospinning, poly(2-oxazoline)s, statistical copolymers, INDUCED PKA SHIFTS, PHOTOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES, COLOR, PK(A), POLY(2-OXAZOLINE)S, RED, POLYPENTAPEPTIDES, SPECTRA, PROTEIN, PROBES

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MLA
Schoolaert, Ella, et al. “Eco-Friendly Colorimetric Nanofiber Design : Halochromic Sensors with Tunable PH-Sensing Regime Based on 2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline and 2-n-Butyl-2-Oxazoline Statistical Copolymers Functionalized with Alizarin Yellow R.” ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, vol. 32, no. 1, 2022, doi:10.1002/adfm.202106859.
APA
Schoolaert, E., Merckx, R., Becelaere, J., Rijssegem, S., Hoogenboom, R., & De Clerck, K. (2022). Eco-friendly colorimetric nanofiber design : halochromic sensors with tunable pH-sensing regime based on 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline statistical copolymers functionalized with alizarin yellow R. ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202106859
Chicago author-date
Schoolaert, Ella, Ronald Merckx, Jana Becelaere, Serge Rijssegem, Richard Hoogenboom, and Karen De Clerck. 2022. “Eco-Friendly Colorimetric Nanofiber Design : Halochromic Sensors with Tunable PH-Sensing Regime Based on 2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline and 2-n-Butyl-2-Oxazoline Statistical Copolymers Functionalized with Alizarin Yellow R.” ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS 32 (1). https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202106859.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schoolaert, Ella, Ronald Merckx, Jana Becelaere, Serge Rijssegem, Richard Hoogenboom, and Karen De Clerck. 2022. “Eco-Friendly Colorimetric Nanofiber Design : Halochromic Sensors with Tunable PH-Sensing Regime Based on 2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline and 2-n-Butyl-2-Oxazoline Statistical Copolymers Functionalized with Alizarin Yellow R.” ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS 32 (1). doi:10.1002/adfm.202106859.
Vancouver
1.
Schoolaert E, Merckx R, Becelaere J, Rijssegem S, Hoogenboom R, De Clerck K. Eco-friendly colorimetric nanofiber design : halochromic sensors with tunable pH-sensing regime based on 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline statistical copolymers functionalized with alizarin yellow R. ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS. 2022;32(1).
IEEE
[1]
E. Schoolaert, R. Merckx, J. Becelaere, S. Rijssegem, R. Hoogenboom, and K. De Clerck, “Eco-friendly colorimetric nanofiber design : halochromic sensors with tunable pH-sensing regime based on 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline statistical copolymers functionalized with alizarin yellow R,” ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, vol. 32, no. 1, 2022.
@article{8719362,
  abstract     = {{Colorimetric nanofibers provide visual, easy-to-interpret sensors for personal use as well as advanced applications. The potential of 2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline (B) and 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (E) statistical copolymers as a universal, versatile support platform for nanofibrous halochromic sensor design is demonstrated. These polymers are electrospinnable from eco-friendly solvent systems, while wettability, moist adsorption capacity, and water-solubility of the membranes can be easily tuned by changing the B/E monomer ratio, ensuring wide applicability. The halochromic sensing functionality is introduced by incorporating the alizarin yellow R (AYR) chromophore, which is covalently modified with an ethyl ester-group or a short poly(2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline) chain, which is demonstrated to simultaneously prevent dye-leaching and allows tuning of the halochromic pH-sensing window. The colorimetric nanofibrous sensors reversibly respond toward aqueous solutions of different pH, (hydrochloric) acid and alkaline (ammonia) vapors, and several biogenic amines with detection limits as low as 5 ppb. Tunability of sensor responsivity, sensitivity, and pKa via manipulation of dye–polymer interactions, determined by support polymer structure and semi-crystallinity, as well as the chain length of the AYR-modified polymer, are discussed. Preliminary proof-of-principle studies indicate the potential of the developed sensors for sub-ppm biogenic amine vapor detection, which may serve as the basis for future applications in food packaging or breath analysis.}},
  articleno    = {{2106859}},
  author       = {{Schoolaert, Ella and Merckx, Ronald and Becelaere, Jana and Rijssegem, Serge and Hoogenboom, Richard and De Clerck, Karen}},
  issn         = {{1616-301X}},
  journal      = {{ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS}},
  keywords     = {{alizarin yellow R,colorimetric sensors,eco-friendly electrospinning,poly(2-oxazoline)s,statistical copolymers,INDUCED PKA SHIFTS,PHOTOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES,COLOR,PK(A),POLY(2-OXAZOLINE)S,RED,POLYPENTAPEPTIDES,SPECTRA,PROTEIN,PROBES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{14}},
  title        = {{Eco-friendly colorimetric nanofiber design : halochromic sensors with tunable pH-sensing regime based on 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and 2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline statistical copolymers functionalized with alizarin yellow R}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202106859}},
  volume       = {{32}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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