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Mass disasters and burnout in nephrology personnel : from earthquakes and hurricanes to COVID-19 pandemic

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Abstract
Mass disasters result in extensive health problems and make health care delivery problematic, as has been the case during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although COVID-19 was initially considered a pulmonary problem, it soon became clear that various other organs were involved. Thus, many care providers, including kidney health personnel, were overwhelmed or developed burnout. This review aims to describe the spectrum of burnout in mass disasters and suggests solutions specifically for nephrology personnel by extending previous experience to the COVID-19 pandemic. Burnout (a psychologic response to work-related stress) is already a frequent part of routine nephrology practice and, not surprisingly, is even more common during mass disasters due to increased workload and specific conditions, in addition to individual factors. Avoiding burnout is essential to prevent psychologic and somatic health problems in personnel as well as malpractice, understaffing, and inadequate health care delivery, all of which increase the health care burden of disasters. Burnout may be prevented by predisaster organizational measures, which include developing an overarching plan and optimizing health care infrastructure, and ad hoc disaster-specific measures that encompass both organizational and individual measures. Organizational measures include increasing safety, decreasing workload and fear of malpractice, optimizing medical staffing and material supplies, motivating personnel, providing mental health support, and enabling flexibility in working circumstances. Individual measures include training on coping with stress and problematic conditions, minimizing the stigma of emotional distress, and maintaining physical health. If these measures fall short, asking for external help is mandatory to avoid an inefficient disaster health care response. Minimizing burnout by applying these measures will improve health care provision, thus saving as many lives as possible.
Keywords
burnout, massive disaster, earthquake, hurricane, COVID-19, pandemic, nephrology, RELIEF TASK-FORCE, TWICE-WEEKLY HEMODIALYSIS, MENTAL-HEALTH, CARE, LESSONS, MARMARA, PATIENT, WORKERS, INTERVENTIONS, MANAGEMENT

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MLA
Sever, Mehmet Sukru, et al. “Mass Disasters and Burnout in Nephrology Personnel : From Earthquakes and Hurricanes to COVID-19 Pandemic.” CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY, vol. 16, no. 5, 2021, pp. 829–37, doi:10.2215/CJN.08400520.
APA
Sever, M. S., Ortiz, A., Maggiore, U., Bac-Garcia, E., & Vanholder, R. (2021). Mass disasters and burnout in nephrology personnel : from earthquakes and hurricanes to COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY, 16(5), 829–837. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08400520
Chicago author-date
Sever, Mehmet Sukru, Alberto Ortiz, Umberto Maggiore, Enrique Bac-Garcia, and Raymond Vanholder. 2021. “Mass Disasters and Burnout in Nephrology Personnel : From Earthquakes and Hurricanes to COVID-19 Pandemic.” CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY 16 (5): 829–37. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08400520.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sever, Mehmet Sukru, Alberto Ortiz, Umberto Maggiore, Enrique Bac-Garcia, and Raymond Vanholder. 2021. “Mass Disasters and Burnout in Nephrology Personnel : From Earthquakes and Hurricanes to COVID-19 Pandemic.” CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY 16 (5): 829–837. doi:10.2215/CJN.08400520.
Vancouver
1.
Sever MS, Ortiz A, Maggiore U, Bac-Garcia E, Vanholder R. Mass disasters and burnout in nephrology personnel : from earthquakes and hurricanes to COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY. 2021;16(5):829–37.
IEEE
[1]
M. S. Sever, A. Ortiz, U. Maggiore, E. Bac-Garcia, and R. Vanholder, “Mass disasters and burnout in nephrology personnel : from earthquakes and hurricanes to COVID-19 pandemic,” CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 829–837, 2021.
@article{8716435,
  abstract     = {{Mass disasters result in extensive health problems and make health care delivery problematic, as has been the case during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although COVID-19 was initially considered a pulmonary problem, it soon became clear that various other organs were involved. Thus, many care providers, including kidney health personnel, were overwhelmed or developed burnout. This review aims to describe the spectrum of burnout in mass disasters and suggests solutions specifically for nephrology personnel by extending previous experience to the COVID-19 pandemic. Burnout (a psychologic response to work-related stress) is already a frequent part of routine nephrology practice and, not surprisingly, is even more common during mass disasters due to increased workload and specific conditions, in addition to individual factors. Avoiding burnout is essential to prevent psychologic and somatic health problems in personnel as well as malpractice, understaffing, and inadequate health care delivery, all of which increase the health care burden of disasters. Burnout may be prevented by predisaster organizational measures, which include developing an overarching plan and optimizing health care infrastructure, and ad hoc disaster-specific measures that encompass both organizational and individual measures. Organizational measures include increasing safety, decreasing workload and fear of malpractice, optimizing medical staffing and material supplies, motivating personnel, providing mental health support, and enabling flexibility in working circumstances. Individual measures include training on coping with stress and problematic conditions, minimizing the stigma of emotional distress, and maintaining physical health. If these measures fall short, asking for external help is mandatory to avoid an inefficient disaster health care response. Minimizing burnout by applying these measures will improve health care provision, thus saving as many lives as possible.}},
  author       = {{Sever, Mehmet Sukru and Ortiz, Alberto and Maggiore, Umberto and Bac-Garcia, Enrique and Vanholder, Raymond}},
  issn         = {{1555-9041}},
  journal      = {{CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{burnout,massive disaster,earthquake,hurricane,COVID-19,pandemic,nephrology,RELIEF TASK-FORCE,TWICE-WEEKLY HEMODIALYSIS,MENTAL-HEALTH,CARE,LESSONS,MARMARA,PATIENT,WORKERS,INTERVENTIONS,MANAGEMENT}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{829--837}},
  title        = {{Mass disasters and burnout in nephrology personnel : from earthquakes and hurricanes to COVID-19 pandemic}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08400520}},
  volume       = {{16}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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