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Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment : an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts

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Abstract
We investigated the heritability of educational attainment and how it differed between birth cohorts and cultural-geographic regions. A classical twin design was applied to pooled data from 28 cohorts representing 16 countries and including 193,518 twins with information on educational attainment at 25 years of age or older. Genetic factors explained the major part of individual differences in educational attainment (heritability: a(2)=0.43; 0.41-0.44), but also environmental variation shared by co-twins was substantial (c(2)=0.31; 0.30-0.33). The proportions of educational variation explained by genetic and shared environmental factors did not differ between Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia. When restricted to twins 30 years or older to confirm finalized education, the heritability was higher in the older cohorts born in 1900-1949 (a(2)=0.44; 0.41-0.46) than in the later cohorts born in 1950-1989 (a(2)=0.38; 0.36-0.40), with a corresponding lower influence of common environmental factors (c(2)=0.31; 0.29-0.33 and c(2)=0.34; 0.32-0.36, respectively). In conclusion, both genetic and environmental factors shared by co-twins have an important influence on individual differences in educational attainment. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.
Keywords
COGNITIVE-ABILITY, HERITABILITY, METAANALYSIS, INEQUALITY, PHENOTYPE, TRAITS

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MLA
Silventoinen, Karri, et al. “Genetic and Environmental Variation in Educational Attainment : An Individual-Based Analysis of 28 Twin Cohorts.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 10, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-69526-6.
APA
Silventoinen, K., Jelenkovic, A., Sund, R., Latvala, A., Honda, C., Inui, F., … Kaprio, J. (2020). Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment : an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69526-6
Chicago author-date
Silventoinen, Karri, Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, Antti Latvala, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Rie Tomizawa, et al. 2020. “Genetic and Environmental Variation in Educational Attainment : An Individual-Based Analysis of 28 Twin Cohorts.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 10 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69526-6.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Silventoinen, Karri, Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, Antti Latvala, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Rie Tomizawa, Mikio Watanabe, Norio Sakai, Esther Rebato, Andreas Busjahn, Jessica Tyler, John L. Hopper, Juan R. Ordonana, Juan F. Sanchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, Lucas Calais-Ferreira, Vinicius C. Oliveira, Paulo H. Ferreira, Emanuela Medda, Lorenza Nistico, Virgilia Toccaceli, Catherine Derom, Robert F. Vlietinck, Ruth J. F. Loos, Sisira H. Siribaddana, Matthew Hotopf, Athula Sumathipala, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Glen E. Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Per Tynelius, Finn Rasmussen, Qihua Tan, Dongfeng Zhang, Zengchang Pang, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Anna K. Dahl Aslan, Amie E. Hwang, Thomas M. Mack, Robert F. Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas S. Nilsen, Jennifer R. Harris, Nicholas G. Martin, Sarah E. Medland, Grant W. Montgomery, Gonneke Willemsen, Meike Bartels, Catharina E. M. van Beijsterveldt, Carol E. Franz, William S. Kremen, Michael J. Lyons, Judy L. Silberg, Hermine H. Maes, Christian Kandler, Tracy L. Nelson, Keith E. Whitfield, Robin P. Corley, Brooke M. Huibregtse, Margaret Gatz, David A. Butler, Adam D. Tarnoki, David L. Tarnoki, Hang A. Park, Jooyeon Lee, Soo Ji Lee, Joohon Sung, Yoshie Yokoyama, Thorkild I. A. Sorensen, I Boomsma, Dorret, and Jaakko Kaprio. 2020. “Genetic and Environmental Variation in Educational Attainment : An Individual-Based Analysis of 28 Twin Cohorts.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 10 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-020-69526-6.
Vancouver
1.
Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Sund R, Latvala A, Honda C, Inui F, et al. Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment : an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2020;10(1).
IEEE
[1]
K. Silventoinen et al., “Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment : an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 10, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8716187,
  abstract     = {{We investigated the heritability of educational attainment and how it differed between birth cohorts and cultural-geographic regions. A classical twin design was applied to pooled data from 28 cohorts representing 16 countries and including 193,518 twins with information on educational attainment at 25 years of age or older. Genetic factors explained the major part of individual differences in educational attainment (heritability: a(2)=0.43; 0.41-0.44), but also environmental variation shared by co-twins was substantial (c(2)=0.31; 0.30-0.33). The proportions of educational variation explained by genetic and shared environmental factors did not differ between Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia. When restricted to twins 30 years or older to confirm finalized education, the heritability was higher in the older cohorts born in 1900-1949 (a(2)=0.44; 0.41-0.46) than in the later cohorts born in 1950-1989 (a(2)=0.38; 0.36-0.40), with a corresponding lower influence of common environmental factors (c(2)=0.31; 0.29-0.33 and c(2)=0.34; 0.32-0.36, respectively). In conclusion, both genetic and environmental factors shared by co-twins have an important influence on individual differences in educational attainment. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.}},
  articleno    = {{12681}},
  author       = {{Silventoinen, Karri and Jelenkovic, Aline and Sund, Reijo and Latvala, Antti and Honda, Chika and Inui, Fujio and Tomizawa, Rie and Watanabe, Mikio and Sakai, Norio and Rebato, Esther and Busjahn, Andreas and Tyler, Jessica and Hopper, John L. and Ordonana, Juan R. and Sanchez-Romera, Juan F. and Colodro-Conde, Lucia and Calais-Ferreira, Lucas and Oliveira, Vinicius C. and Ferreira, Paulo H. and Medda, Emanuela and Nistico, Lorenza and Toccaceli, Virgilia and Derom, Catherine and Vlietinck, Robert F. and Loos, Ruth J. F. and Siribaddana, Sisira H. and Hotopf, Matthew and Sumathipala, Athula and Rijsdijk, Fruhling and Duncan, Glen E. and Buchwald, Dedra and Tynelius, Per and Rasmussen, Finn and Tan, Qihua and Zhang, Dongfeng and Pang, Zengchang and Magnusson, Patrik K. E. and Pedersen, Nancy L. and Aslan, Anna K. Dahl and Hwang, Amie E. and Mack, Thomas M. and Krueger, Robert F. and McGue, Matt and Pahlen, Shandell and Brandt, Ingunn and Nilsen, Thomas S. and Harris, Jennifer R. and Martin, Nicholas G. and Medland, Sarah E. and Montgomery, Grant W. and Willemsen, Gonneke and Bartels, Meike and van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M. and Franz, Carol E. and Kremen, William S. and Lyons, Michael J. and Silberg, Judy L. and Maes, Hermine H. and Kandler, Christian and Nelson, Tracy L. and Whitfield, Keith E. and Corley, Robin P. and Huibregtse, Brooke M. and Gatz, Margaret and Butler, David A. and Tarnoki, Adam D. and Tarnoki, David L. and Park, Hang A. and Lee, Jooyeon and Lee, Soo Ji and Sung, Joohon and Yokoyama, Yoshie and Sorensen, Thorkild I. A. and Boomsma, Dorret, I and Kaprio, Jaakko}},
  issn         = {{2045-2322}},
  journal      = {{SCIENTIFIC REPORTS}},
  keywords     = {{COGNITIVE-ABILITY,HERITABILITY,METAANALYSIS,INEQUALITY,PHENOTYPE,TRAITS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment : an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69526-6}},
  volume       = {{10}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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