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The impact of the fungus-host-microbiota interplay upon Candida albicans infections : current knowledge and new perspectives

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Abstract
Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It exists as a commensal in the oral cavity, gut or genital tract of most individuals, constrained by the local microbiota, epithelial barriers and immune defences. Their perturbation can lead to fungal outgrowth and the development of mucosal infections such as oropharyngeal or vulvovaginal candidiasis, and patients with compromised immunity are susceptible to life-threatening systemic infections. The importance of the interplay between fungus, host and microbiota in driving the transition from C. albicans commensalism to pathogenicity is widely appreciated. However, the complexity of these interactions, and the significant impact of fungal, host and microbiota variability upon disease severity and outcome, are less well understood. Therefore, we summarise the features of the fungus that promote infection, and how genetic variation between clinical isolates influences pathogenicity. We discuss antifungal immunity, how this differs between mucosae, and how individual variation influences a person's susceptibility to infection. Also, we describe factors that influence the composition of gut, oral and vaginal microbiotas, and how these affect fungal colonisation and antifungal immunity. We argue that a detailed understanding of these variables, which underlie fungal-host-microbiota interactions, will present opportunities for directed antifungal therapies that benefit vulnerable patients.
Keywords
Candida, Candida infections, antifungal immunity, microbiota, mycobiota, fungus-host-microbiota interactions, patient variability, fungal variability, microbiota variability, C-TYPE LECTIN, VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS, ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE, PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTOR, TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS, CHAIN FATTY-ACIDS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS, DESORPTION IONIZATION-TIME, CROSS-KINGDOM INTERACTIONS, ARYL-HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR

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Citation

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MLA
d’Enfert, Christophe, et al. “The Impact of the Fungus-Host-Microbiota Interplay upon Candida Albicans Infections : Current Knowledge and New Perspectives.” FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, vol. 45, no. 3, 2021, doi:10.1093/femsre/fuaa060.
APA
d’Enfert, C., Kaune, A.-K., Alaban, L.-R., Chakraborty, S., Cole, N., Delavy, M., … Brown, A. J. P. (2021). The impact of the fungus-host-microbiota interplay upon Candida albicans infections : current knowledge and new perspectives. FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, 45(3). https://doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuaa060
Chicago author-date
Enfert, Christophe d’, Ann-Kristin Kaune, Leovigildo-Rey Alaban, Sayoni Chakraborty, Nathaniel Cole, Margot Delavy, Daria Kosmala, et al. 2021. “The Impact of the Fungus-Host-Microbiota Interplay upon Candida Albicans Infections : Current Knowledge and New Perspectives.” FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS 45 (3). https://doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuaa060.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
d’Enfert, Christophe, Ann-Kristin Kaune, Leovigildo-Rey Alaban, Sayoni Chakraborty, Nathaniel Cole, Margot Delavy, Daria Kosmala, Benoit Marsaux, Ricardo Frois-Martins, Moran Morelli, Diletta Rosati, Marisa Valentine, Zixuan Xie, Yoan Emritloll, Peter A. Warn, Frederic Bequet, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Stephanie Bornes, Mark S. Gresnigt, Bernhard Hube, Ilse D. Jacobsen, Melanie Legrand, Salome Leibundgut-Landmann, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Carol A. Munro, Mihai G. Netea, Karla Queiroz, Karine Roget, Vincent Thomas, Claudia Thoral, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Alan W. Walker, and Alistair J. P. Brown. 2021. “The Impact of the Fungus-Host-Microbiota Interplay upon Candida Albicans Infections : Current Knowledge and New Perspectives.” FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS 45 (3). doi:10.1093/femsre/fuaa060.
Vancouver
1.
d’Enfert C, Kaune A-K, Alaban L-R, Chakraborty S, Cole N, Delavy M, et al. The impact of the fungus-host-microbiota interplay upon Candida albicans infections : current knowledge and new perspectives. FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS. 2021;45(3).
IEEE
[1]
C. d’Enfert et al., “The impact of the fungus-host-microbiota interplay upon Candida albicans infections : current knowledge and new perspectives,” FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, vol. 45, no. 3, 2021.
@article{8714688,
  abstract     = {{Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It exists as a commensal in the oral cavity, gut or genital tract of most individuals, constrained by the local microbiota, epithelial barriers and immune defences. Their perturbation can lead to fungal outgrowth and the development of mucosal infections such as oropharyngeal or vulvovaginal candidiasis, and patients with compromised immunity are susceptible to life-threatening systemic infections. The importance of the interplay between fungus, host and microbiota in driving the transition from C. albicans commensalism to pathogenicity is widely appreciated. However, the complexity of these interactions, and the significant impact of fungal, host and microbiota variability upon disease severity and outcome, are less well understood. Therefore, we summarise the features of the fungus that promote infection, and how genetic variation between clinical isolates influences pathogenicity. We discuss antifungal immunity, how this differs between mucosae, and how individual variation influences a person's susceptibility to infection. Also, we describe factors that influence the composition of gut, oral and vaginal microbiotas, and how these affect fungal colonisation and antifungal immunity. We argue that a detailed understanding of these variables, which underlie fungal-host-microbiota interactions, will present opportunities for directed antifungal therapies that benefit vulnerable patients.}},
  articleno    = {{fuaa060}},
  author       = {{d'Enfert, Christophe and Kaune, Ann-Kristin and Alaban, Leovigildo-Rey and Chakraborty, Sayoni and Cole, Nathaniel and Delavy, Margot and Kosmala, Daria and Marsaux, Benoit and Frois-Martins, Ricardo and Morelli, Moran and Rosati, Diletta and Valentine, Marisa and Xie, Zixuan and Emritloll, Yoan and Warn, Peter A. and Bequet, Frederic and Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth and Bornes, Stephanie and Gresnigt, Mark S. and Hube, Bernhard and Jacobsen, Ilse D. and Legrand, Melanie and Leibundgut-Landmann, Salome and Manichanh, Chaysavanh and Munro, Carol A. and Netea, Mihai G. and Queiroz, Karla and Roget, Karine and Thomas, Vincent and Thoral, Claudia and Van den Abbeele, Pieter and Walker, Alan W. and Brown, Alistair J. P.}},
  issn         = {{0168-6445}},
  journal      = {{FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS}},
  keywords     = {{Candida,Candida infections,antifungal immunity,microbiota,mycobiota,fungus-host-microbiota interactions,patient variability,fungal variability,microbiota variability,C-TYPE LECTIN,VULVO-VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS,ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE,PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTOR,TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS,CHAIN FATTY-ACIDS,CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS,DESORPTION IONIZATION-TIME,CROSS-KINGDOM INTERACTIONS,ARYL-HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{55}},
  title        = {{The impact of the fungus-host-microbiota interplay upon Candida albicans infections : current knowledge and new perspectives}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuaa060}},
  volume       = {{45}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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