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Variation of snow mass in a regional climate model downscaling simulation covering the Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia

Tao Yang (UGent) , Qian Li, Xi Chen, Rafiq Hamdi (UGent) , Philippe De Maeyer (UGent) and Lanhai Li
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Organization
Abstract
Mountain snow is a fundamental freshwater supply in the arid regions. Climate warming alters the timing of snowmelt and shortens the snow cover duration, which greatly influences the regional climate and water management. However, a reliable estimation of snow mass in the Tianshan Mountains (TS) is still unclear due to the scarcity of extensive continuous surface observations and a complex spatial heterogeneity. Therefore, a long-time snow simulation from 1982 to 2018 was performed in WRF/Noah-MP to quantify snow mass in the TS, forced by ERA5 reanalysis data and real-time updated leaf area index and green vegetation fraction. Meanwhile, March snow mass (close to the annual peak snow mass), snow cover fraction (SCF), and their associated trends were investigated in the TS. The results indicated a good accuracy of the simulated snow water equivalent (root mean square error [RMSE]: 7.82 mm/day) with a slight overestimation (2.84 mm/day). Compared with ERA5 data set, the RMSE and mean bias of the daily snow depth from WRF/Noah-MP downscaling were significantly reduced by 95.74% and 93.02%, respectively. The climatological March snow mass measured 97.85 (+/- 16.60) Gt in the TS and exhibited a negligible tendency during the study period. The total precipitation during the cold season controlled the variations of March snow mass. The increased precipitation in the high-altitude regions contributed to an extensive snow mass, which could offset the loss in the TS lowland. In contrast, rapidly rising air temperature caused a significant reduction of March SCF, particularly in the Southern TS.
Keywords
LEAF-AREA INDEX, SURFACE AIR-TEMPERATURE, WATER EQUIVALENT, TIEN-SHAN, IN-SITU, PRECIPITATION, IMPACTS, WESTERN, DEPTH, VARIABILITY

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MLA
Yang, Tao, et al. “Variation of Snow Mass in a Regional Climate Model Downscaling Simulation Covering the Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia.” JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, vol. 126, no. 10, 2021, doi:10.1029/2020JD034183.
APA
Yang, T., Li, Q., Chen, X., Hamdi, R., De Maeyer, P., & Li, L. (2021). Variation of snow mass in a regional climate model downscaling simulation covering the Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 126(10). https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD034183
Chicago author-date
Yang, Tao, Qian Li, Xi Chen, Rafiq Hamdi, Philippe De Maeyer, and Lanhai Li. 2021. “Variation of Snow Mass in a Regional Climate Model Downscaling Simulation Covering the Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia.” JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 126 (10). https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD034183.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Yang, Tao, Qian Li, Xi Chen, Rafiq Hamdi, Philippe De Maeyer, and Lanhai Li. 2021. “Variation of Snow Mass in a Regional Climate Model Downscaling Simulation Covering the Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia.” JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 126 (10). doi:10.1029/2020JD034183.
Vancouver
1.
Yang T, Li Q, Chen X, Hamdi R, De Maeyer P, Li L. Variation of snow mass in a regional climate model downscaling simulation covering the Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. 2021;126(10).
IEEE
[1]
T. Yang, Q. Li, X. Chen, R. Hamdi, P. De Maeyer, and L. Li, “Variation of snow mass in a regional climate model downscaling simulation covering the Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia,” JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, vol. 126, no. 10, 2021.
@article{8714614,
  abstract     = {{Mountain snow is a fundamental freshwater supply in the arid regions. Climate warming alters the timing of snowmelt and shortens the snow cover duration, which greatly influences the regional climate and water management. However, a reliable estimation of snow mass in the Tianshan Mountains (TS) is still unclear due to the scarcity of extensive continuous surface observations and a complex spatial heterogeneity. Therefore, a long-time snow simulation from 1982 to 2018 was performed in WRF/Noah-MP to quantify snow mass in the TS, forced by ERA5 reanalysis data and real-time updated leaf area index and green vegetation fraction. Meanwhile, March snow mass (close to the annual peak snow mass), snow cover fraction (SCF), and their associated trends were investigated in the TS. The results indicated a good accuracy of the simulated snow water equivalent (root mean square error [RMSE]: 7.82 mm/day) with a slight overestimation (2.84 mm/day). Compared with ERA5 data set, the RMSE and mean bias of the daily snow depth from WRF/Noah-MP downscaling were significantly reduced by 95.74% and 93.02%, respectively. The climatological March snow mass measured 97.85 (+/- 16.60) Gt in the TS and exhibited a negligible tendency during the study period. The total precipitation during the cold season controlled the variations of March snow mass. The increased precipitation in the high-altitude regions contributed to an extensive snow mass, which could offset the loss in the TS lowland. In contrast, rapidly rising air temperature caused a significant reduction of March SCF, particularly in the Southern TS.}},
  articleno    = {{e2020JD034183}},
  author       = {{Yang, Tao and Li, Qian and Chen, Xi and Hamdi, Rafiq and De Maeyer, Philippe and Li, Lanhai}},
  issn         = {{2169-897X}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES}},
  keywords     = {{LEAF-AREA INDEX,SURFACE AIR-TEMPERATURE,WATER EQUIVALENT,TIEN-SHAN,IN-SITU,PRECIPITATION,IMPACTS,WESTERN,DEPTH,VARIABILITY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{10}},
  pages        = {{21}},
  title        = {{Variation of snow mass in a regional climate model downscaling simulation covering the Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2020JD034183}},
  volume       = {{126}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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