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The architecture of circulating immune cells Is dysregulated in people living with HIV on long term antiretroviral treatment and relates with markers of the HIV-1 reservoir, cytomegalovirus, and microbial tanslocation

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Abstract
Long-term changes in the immune system of successfully treated people living with HIV (PLHIV) remain incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed 108 white blood cell (WBC) populations in a cohort of 211 PLHIV on stable antiretroviral therapy and in 56 HIV-uninfected controls using flow cytometry. We show that marked differences exist in T cell maturation and differentiation between PLHIV and HIV-uninfected controls: PLHIV had reduced percentages of CD4+ T cells and naive T cells and increased percentages of CD8+ T cells, effector T cells, and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, together with increased Th17/regulatory T cell (Treg) ratios. PLHIV also exhibited altered B cell maturation with reduced percentages of memory B cells and increased numbers of plasmablasts. Determinants of the T and B cell composition in PLHIV included host factors (age, sex, and smoking), markers of the HIV reservoir, and CMV serostatus. Moreover, higher circulating Th17 percentages were associated with higher plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 6, soluble CD14, the gut homing chemokine CCL20, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP). The changes in circulating lymphocytes translated into functional changes with reduced interferon (IFN)- gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In conclusion, this comprehensive analysis confirms the importance of persistent abnormalities in the number and function of circulating immune cells in PLHIV on stable treatment.
Keywords
HIV, Th17 &amp, Tregs cells, CD4+, CD8+lymphocytes, B cell, HIV reservoir, CMV, Interferon gama (IFN-&#947, ), Natural killer cell (NK cells)

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MLA
Van de Wijer, Lisa, et al. “The Architecture of Circulating Immune Cells Is Dysregulated in People Living with HIV on Long Term Antiretroviral Treatment and Relates with Markers of the HIV-1 Reservoir, Cytomegalovirus, and Microbial Tanslocation.” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 12, 2021, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.661990.
APA
Van de Wijer, L., van der Heijden, W. A., Horst, R. ter, Jaeger, M., Trypsteen, W., Rutsaert, S., … de Mast, Q. (2021). The architecture of circulating immune cells Is dysregulated in people living with HIV on long term antiretroviral treatment and relates with markers of the HIV-1 reservoir, cytomegalovirus, and microbial tanslocation. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.661990
Chicago author-date
Van de Wijer, Lisa, Wouter A. van der Heijden, Rob ter Horst, Martin Jaeger, Wim Trypsteen, Sofie Rutsaert, Bram van Cranenbroek, et al. 2021. “The Architecture of Circulating Immune Cells Is Dysregulated in People Living with HIV on Long Term Antiretroviral Treatment and Relates with Markers of the HIV-1 Reservoir, Cytomegalovirus, and Microbial Tanslocation.” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.661990.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van de Wijer, Lisa, Wouter A. van der Heijden, Rob ter Horst, Martin Jaeger, Wim Trypsteen, Sofie Rutsaert, Bram van Cranenbroek, Esther van Rijssen, Irma Joosten, Leo Joosten, Linos Vandekerckhove, Till Schoofs, Jan van Lunzen, Mihai G. Netea, Hans J.P.M. Koenen, André J.A.M. van der Ven, and Quirijn de Mast. 2021. “The Architecture of Circulating Immune Cells Is Dysregulated in People Living with HIV on Long Term Antiretroviral Treatment and Relates with Markers of the HIV-1 Reservoir, Cytomegalovirus, and Microbial Tanslocation.” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 12. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.661990.
Vancouver
1.
Van de Wijer L, van der Heijden WA, Horst R ter, Jaeger M, Trypsteen W, Rutsaert S, et al. The architecture of circulating immune cells Is dysregulated in people living with HIV on long term antiretroviral treatment and relates with markers of the HIV-1 reservoir, cytomegalovirus, and microbial tanslocation. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY. 2021;12.
IEEE
[1]
L. Van de Wijer et al., “The architecture of circulating immune cells Is dysregulated in people living with HIV on long term antiretroviral treatment and relates with markers of the HIV-1 reservoir, cytomegalovirus, and microbial tanslocation,” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 12, 2021.
@article{8713005,
  abstract     = {{Long-term changes in the immune system of successfully treated people living with HIV (PLHIV) remain incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed 108 white blood cell (WBC) populations in a cohort of 211 PLHIV on stable antiretroviral therapy and in 56 HIV-uninfected controls using flow cytometry. We show that marked differences exist in T cell maturation and differentiation between PLHIV and HIV-uninfected controls: PLHIV had reduced percentages of CD4+ T cells and naive T cells and increased percentages of CD8+ T cells, effector T cells, and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, together with increased Th17/regulatory T cell (Treg) ratios. PLHIV also exhibited altered B cell maturation with reduced percentages of memory B cells and increased numbers of plasmablasts. Determinants of the T and B cell composition in PLHIV included host factors (age, sex, and smoking), markers of the HIV reservoir, and CMV serostatus. Moreover, higher circulating Th17 percentages were associated with higher plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 6, soluble CD14, the gut homing chemokine CCL20, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP). The changes in circulating lymphocytes translated into functional changes with reduced interferon (IFN)- gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In conclusion, this comprehensive analysis confirms the importance of persistent abnormalities in the number and function of circulating immune cells in PLHIV on stable treatment.}},
  articleno    = {{661990}},
  author       = {{Van de Wijer, Lisa and van der Heijden, Wouter A. and Horst, Rob ter and Jaeger, Martin and Trypsteen, Wim and Rutsaert, Sofie and van Cranenbroek, Bram and van Rijssen, Esther and Joosten, Irma and Joosten, Leo and Vandekerckhove, Linos and Schoofs, Till and van Lunzen, Jan and Netea, Mihai G. and Koenen, Hans J.P.M. and van der Ven, André J.A.M. and de Mast, Quirijn}},
  issn         = {{1664-3224}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{HIV,Th17 &amp,Tregs cells,CD4+,CD8+lymphocytes,B cell,HIV reservoir,CMV,Interferon gama (IFN-&#947,),Natural killer cell (NK cells)}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{The architecture of circulating immune cells Is dysregulated in people living with HIV on long term antiretroviral treatment and relates with markers of the HIV-1 reservoir, cytomegalovirus, and microbial tanslocation}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.661990}},
  volume       = {{12}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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