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International consensus based review and recommendations for minimum reporting standards in research on transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (version 2020)

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Abstract
Given its non-invasive nature, there is increasing interest in the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) across basic, translational and clinical research. Contemporaneously, tVNS can be achieved by stimulating either the auricular branch or the cervical bundle of the vagus nerve, referred to as transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation(VNS) and transcutaneous cervical VNS, respectively. In order to advance the field in a systematic manner, studies using these technologies need to adequately report sufficient methodological detail to enable comparison of results between studies, replication of studies, as well as enhancing study participant safety. We systematically reviewed the existing tVNS literature to evaluate current reporting practices. Based on this review, and consensus among participating authors, we propose a set of minimal reporting items to guide future tVNS studies. The suggested items address specific technical aspects of the device and stimulation parameters. We also cover general recommendations including inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants, outcome parameters and the detailed reporting of side effects. Furthermore, we review strategies used to identify the optimal stimulation parameters for a given research setting and summarize ongoing developments in animal research with potential implications for the application of tVNS in humans. Finally, we discuss the potential of tVNS in future research as well as the associated challenges across several disciplines in research and clinical practice.
Keywords
transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation, minimum reporting standards, guidelines &amp, recommendations, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous cervical vagus nerve stimulation

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MLA
Farmer, Adam D., et al. “International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (Version 2020).” FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE, vol. 14, 2021, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2020.568051.
APA
Farmer, A. D., Strzelczyk, A., Finisguerra, A., Gourine, Alexander, V., Gharabaghi, A., Hasan, A., … Koenig, J. (2021). International consensus based review and recommendations for minimum reporting standards in research on transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (version 2020). FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE, 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.568051
Chicago author-date
Farmer, Adam D., Adam Strzelczyk, Alessandra Finisguerra, V Gourine, Alexander, Alireza Gharabaghi, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas M. Burger, et al. 2021. “International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (Version 2020).” FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.568051.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Farmer, Adam D., Adam Strzelczyk, Alessandra Finisguerra, V Gourine, Alexander, Alireza Gharabaghi, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas M. Burger, Andres M. Jaramillo, Ann Mertens, Arshad Majid, Bart Verkuil, Bashar W. Badran, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Charly Gaul, Christian Beste, Christopher M. Warren, Daniel S. Quintana, Dorothea Hammerer, Elena Freri, Eleni Frangos, Eleonora Tobaldini, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Felix Rosenow, Fioravante Capone, Fivos Panetsos, Gareth L. Ackland, Gaurav Kaithwas, Georgia H. O’Leary, Hannah Genheimer, Heidi I. L. Jacobs, Ilse Van Diest, Jean Schoenen, Jessica Redgrave, Jiliang Fang, Jim Deuchars, Jozsef C. Szeles, Julian F. Thayer, Kaushik More, Kristl Vonck, Laura Steenbergen, Lauro C. Vianna, Lisa M. McTeague, Mareike Ludwig, Maria G. Veldhuizen, Marijke De Couck, Marina Casazza, Marius Keute, Marom Bikson, Marta Andreatta, Martina D’Agostini, Mathias Weymar, Matthew Betts, Matthias Prigge, Michael Kaess, Michael Roden, Michelle Thai, Nathaniel M. Schuster, Nicola Montano, Niels Hansen, Nils B. Kroemer, Peijing Rong, Rico Fischer, Robert H. Howland, Roberta Sclocco, Roberta Sellaro, Ronald G. Garcia, Sebastian Bauer, Sofiya Gancheva, Stavros Stavrakis, Stefan Kampusch, Susan A. Deuchars, Sven Wehner, Sylvain Laborde, Taras Usichenko, Thomas Polak, Tino Zaehle, Uirassu Borges, Vanessa Teckentrup, Vera K. Jandackova, Vitaly Napadow, and Julian Koenig. 2021. “International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (Version 2020).” FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE 14. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2020.568051.
Vancouver
1.
Farmer AD, Strzelczyk A, Finisguerra A, Gourine, Alexander V, Gharabaghi A, Hasan A, et al. International consensus based review and recommendations for minimum reporting standards in research on transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (version 2020). FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE. 2021;14.
IEEE
[1]
A. D. Farmer et al., “International consensus based review and recommendations for minimum reporting standards in research on transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (version 2020),” FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE, vol. 14, 2021.
@article{8712756,
  abstract     = {{Given its non-invasive nature, there is increasing interest in the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) across basic, translational and clinical research. Contemporaneously, tVNS can be achieved by stimulating either the auricular branch or the cervical bundle of the vagus nerve, referred to as transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation(VNS) and transcutaneous cervical VNS, respectively. In order to advance the field in a systematic manner, studies using these technologies need to adequately report sufficient methodological detail to enable comparison of results between studies, replication of studies, as well as enhancing study participant safety. We systematically reviewed the existing tVNS literature to evaluate current reporting practices. Based on this review, and consensus among participating authors, we propose a set of minimal reporting items to guide future tVNS studies. The suggested items address specific technical aspects of the device and stimulation parameters. We also cover general recommendations including inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants, outcome parameters and the detailed reporting of side effects. Furthermore, we review strategies used to identify the optimal stimulation parameters for a given research setting and summarize ongoing developments in animal research with potential implications for the application of tVNS in humans. Finally, we discuss the potential of tVNS in future research as well as the associated challenges across several disciplines in research and clinical practice.}},
  articleno    = {{568051}},
  author       = {{Farmer, Adam D. and Strzelczyk, Adam and Finisguerra, Alessandra and Gourine, Alexander, V and Gharabaghi, Alireza and Hasan, Alkomiet and Burger, Andreas M. and Jaramillo, Andres M. and Mertens, Ann and Majid, Arshad and Verkuil, Bart and Badran, Bashar W. and Ventura-Bort, Carlos and Gaul, Charly and Beste, Christian and Warren, Christopher M. and Quintana, Daniel S. and Hammerer, Dorothea and Freri, Elena and Frangos, Eleni and Tobaldini, Eleonora and Kaniusas, Eugenijus and Rosenow, Felix and Capone, Fioravante and Panetsos, Fivos and Ackland, Gareth L. and Kaithwas, Gaurav and O'Leary, Georgia H. and Genheimer, Hannah and Jacobs, Heidi I. L. and Van Diest, Ilse and Schoenen, Jean and Redgrave, Jessica and Fang, Jiliang and Deuchars, Jim and Szeles, Jozsef C. and Thayer, Julian F. and More, Kaushik and Vonck, Kristl and Steenbergen, Laura and Vianna, Lauro C. and McTeague, Lisa M. and Ludwig, Mareike and Veldhuizen, Maria G. and De Couck, Marijke and Casazza, Marina and Keute, Marius and Bikson, Marom and Andreatta, Marta and D'Agostini, Martina and Weymar, Mathias and Betts, Matthew and Prigge, Matthias and Kaess, Michael and Roden, Michael and Thai, Michelle and Schuster, Nathaniel M. and Montano, Nicola and Hansen, Niels and Kroemer, Nils B. and Rong, Peijing and Fischer, Rico and Howland, Robert H. and Sclocco, Roberta and Sellaro, Roberta and Garcia, Ronald G. and Bauer, Sebastian and Gancheva, Sofiya and Stavrakis, Stavros and Kampusch, Stefan and Deuchars, Susan A. and Wehner, Sven and Laborde, Sylvain and Usichenko, Taras and Polak, Thomas and Zaehle, Tino and Borges, Uirassu and Teckentrup, Vanessa and Jandackova, Vera K. and Napadow, Vitaly and Koenig, Julian}},
  issn         = {{1662-5161}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE}},
  keywords     = {{transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation,minimum reporting standards,guidelines &amp,recommendations,transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation,transcutaneous cervical vagus nerve stimulation}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{47}},
  title        = {{International consensus based review and recommendations for minimum reporting standards in research on transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (version 2020)}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.568051}},
  volume       = {{14}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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