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A multi-method assessment of attentional processes in chronic, treatment-resistant depression

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Abstract
Attentional deficits as well as attentional biases towards negative material are related to major depression and might maintain chronicity. However, studies investigating attentional deficits and attentional biases in chronic, treatment-resistant depressed are lacking. The aim of the current study was to compare measures of attentional deficits and attentional bias between chronic, treatment-resistant depressed outpatients and never-depressed control participants. Attentional deficits were assessed with the attentional control scale (ACS) and the Stroop Color naming task. Attentional bias was measured with the exogenous cueing task (ECT) and an emotional Stroop task. Chronic, treatment-resistant depressed patients (n = 80) showed significantly more attentional deficits than never-depressed controls (n = 113) on the ACS and Stroop color-naming task. However, in contrast with hypotheses, no differences were found between chronic, treatment-resistant depressed patients and neverdepressed individuals on the ECT or emotional Stroop task. The current findings indicate that chronic, treatment-resistant depressed patients present attentional deficits. The results however question whether this patient group shows attentional biases for negative material. Future research should include comparisons of chronic, treatment-resistant and non-chronically depressed patients. If replicated, these current results might indicate that focusing on improving attentional deficits could be a more promising target for treatment than addressing attentional biases.
Keywords
Biological Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Mental health, Depressive disorder, Attentional deficits, Attentional bias, Chronic depression, Treatment-resistant depression, Emotion context insensitivity

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MLA
Cladder-Micus, Mira, et al. “A Multi-Method Assessment of Attentional Processes in Chronic, Treatment-Resistant Depression.” JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, vol. 140, 2021, pp. 68–76, doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.04.030.
APA
Cladder-Micus, M., Vrijsen, J. N., de Putter, L., De Raedt, R., Spijker, J., Speckens, A. E. M., … Koster, E. (2021). A multi-method assessment of attentional processes in chronic, treatment-resistant depression. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, 140, 68–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.04.030
Chicago author-date
Cladder-Micus, Mira, Janna N. Vrijsen, Laura de Putter, Rudi De Raedt, Jan Spijker, Anne E. M. Speckens, Eni S. Becker, and Ernst Koster. 2021. “A Multi-Method Assessment of Attentional Processes in Chronic, Treatment-Resistant Depression.” JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH 140: 68–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.04.030.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Cladder-Micus, Mira, Janna N. Vrijsen, Laura de Putter, Rudi De Raedt, Jan Spijker, Anne E. M. Speckens, Eni S. Becker, and Ernst Koster. 2021. “A Multi-Method Assessment of Attentional Processes in Chronic, Treatment-Resistant Depression.” JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH 140: 68–76. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.04.030.
Vancouver
1.
Cladder-Micus M, Vrijsen JN, de Putter L, De Raedt R, Spijker J, Speckens AEM, et al. A multi-method assessment of attentional processes in chronic, treatment-resistant depression. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH. 2021;140:68–76.
IEEE
[1]
M. Cladder-Micus et al., “A multi-method assessment of attentional processes in chronic, treatment-resistant depression,” JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, vol. 140, pp. 68–76, 2021.
@article{8712405,
  abstract     = {{Attentional deficits as well as attentional biases towards negative material are related to major depression and might maintain chronicity. However, studies investigating attentional deficits and attentional biases in chronic, treatment-resistant depressed are lacking. The aim of the current study was to compare measures of attentional deficits and attentional bias between chronic, treatment-resistant depressed outpatients and never-depressed control participants. Attentional deficits were assessed with the attentional control scale (ACS) and the Stroop Color naming task. Attentional bias was measured with the exogenous cueing task (ECT) and an emotional Stroop task. Chronic, treatment-resistant depressed patients (n = 80) showed significantly more attentional deficits than never-depressed controls (n = 113) on the ACS and Stroop color-naming task. However, in contrast with hypotheses, no differences were found between chronic, treatment-resistant depressed patients and neverdepressed individuals on the ECT or emotional Stroop task. The current findings indicate that chronic, treatment-resistant depressed patients present attentional deficits. The results however question whether this patient group shows attentional biases for negative material. Future research should include comparisons of chronic, treatment-resistant and non-chronically depressed patients. If replicated, these current results might indicate that focusing on improving attentional deficits could be a more promising target for treatment than addressing attentional biases.}},
  author       = {{Cladder-Micus, Mira and Vrijsen, Janna N. and de Putter, Laura and De Raedt, Rudi and Spijker, Jan and Speckens, Anne E. M. and Becker, Eni S. and Koster, Ernst}},
  issn         = {{0022-3956}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH}},
  keywords     = {{Biological Psychiatry,Psychiatry and Mental health,Depressive disorder,Attentional deficits,Attentional bias,Chronic depression,Treatment-resistant depression,Emotion context insensitivity}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{68--76}},
  title        = {{A multi-method assessment of attentional processes in chronic, treatment-resistant depression}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.04.030}},
  volume       = {{140}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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