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Abstract
The analysis of data in which multiple languages are represented has gained popularity among computational linguists in recent years. So far, much of this research focuses mainly on the improvement of computational methods and largely ignores linguistic and social aspects of C-S discussed across a wide range of languages within the long-established literature in linguistics. To fill this gap, we offer a survey of code-switching (C-S) covering the literature in linguistics with a reflection on the key issues in language technologies. From the linguistic perspective, we provide an overview of structural and functional patterns of C-S focusing on the literature from European and Indian contexts as highly multilingual areas. From the language technologies perspective, we discuss how massive language models fail to represent diverse C-S types due to lack of appropriate training data, lack of robust evaluation benchmarks for C-S (across multilingual situations and types of C-S) and lack of end-to- end systems that cover sociolinguistic aspects of C-S as well. Our survey will be a step to- wards an outcome of mutual benefit for computational scientists and linguists with a shared interest in multilingualism and C-S.
Keywords
Multilingualism, LT3, Code-switching, Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, Linguistics, Computational Linguistics

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MLA
Doğruöz, A. Seza, et al. “A Survey of Code-Switching : Linguistic and Social Perspectives for Language Technologies.” 59TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS AND THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL 1 (ACL-IJCNLP 2021), edited by Chengqing Zong et al., Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), 2021, pp. 1654–66, doi:10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.131.
APA
Doğruöz, A. S., Sitaram, S., Bullock, B. E., & Toribio, A. J. (2021). A survey of code-switching : linguistic and social perspectives for language technologies. In C. Zong, F. Xia, W. Li, & R. Navigli (Eds.), 59TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS AND THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL 1 (ACL-IJCNLP 2021) (pp. 1654–1666). Online (Bangkok, Thailand): Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL). https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.131
Chicago author-date
Doğruöz, A. Seza, Sunayana Sitaram, Barbara E. Bullock, and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 2021. “A Survey of Code-Switching : Linguistic and Social Perspectives for Language Technologies.” In 59TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS AND THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL 1 (ACL-IJCNLP 2021), edited by Chengqing Zong, Fei Xia, Wenjie Li, and Roberto Navigli, 1654–66. Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL). https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.131.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Doğruöz, A. Seza, Sunayana Sitaram, Barbara E. Bullock, and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 2021. “A Survey of Code-Switching : Linguistic and Social Perspectives for Language Technologies.” In 59TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS AND THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL 1 (ACL-IJCNLP 2021), ed by. Chengqing Zong, Fei Xia, Wenjie Li, and Roberto Navigli, 1654–1666. Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL). doi:10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.131.
Vancouver
1.
Doğruöz AS, Sitaram S, Bullock BE, Toribio AJ. A survey of code-switching : linguistic and social perspectives for language technologies. In: Zong C, Xia F, Li W, Navigli R, editors. 59TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS AND THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL 1 (ACL-IJCNLP 2021). Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL); 2021. p. 1654–66.
IEEE
[1]
A. S. Doğruöz, S. Sitaram, B. E. Bullock, and A. J. Toribio, “A survey of code-switching : linguistic and social perspectives for language technologies,” in 59TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS AND THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL 1 (ACL-IJCNLP 2021), Online (Bangkok, Thailand), 2021, pp. 1654–1666.
@inproceedings{8712328,
  abstract     = {{The analysis of data in which multiple languages are represented has gained popularity among computational linguists in recent years. So far, much of this research focuses mainly on the improvement of computational methods and largely ignores linguistic and social aspects of C-S discussed across a wide range of languages within the long-established literature in linguistics. To fill this gap, we offer a survey of code-switching (C-S) covering the literature in linguistics with a reflection on the key issues in language technologies. From the linguistic perspective, we provide an overview of structural and functional patterns of C-S focusing on the literature from European and Indian contexts as highly multilingual areas. From the language technologies perspective, we discuss how massive language models fail to represent diverse C-S types due to lack of appropriate training data, lack of robust evaluation benchmarks for C-S (across multilingual situations and types of C-S) and lack of end-to- end systems that cover sociolinguistic aspects of C-S as well. Our survey will be a step to- wards an outcome of mutual benefit for computational scientists and linguists with a shared interest in multilingualism and C-S.}},
  author       = {{Doğruöz, A. Seza and Sitaram, Sunayana and Bullock, Barbara E. and Toribio, Almeida Jacqueline}},
  booktitle    = {{59TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS AND THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL 1 (ACL-IJCNLP 2021)}},
  editor       = {{Zong, Chengqing and Xia, Fei and Li, Wenjie and Navigli, Roberto}},
  isbn         = {{9781954085527}},
  keywords     = {{Multilingualism,LT3,Code-switching,Natural Language Processing,Machine Learning,Linguistics,Computational Linguistics}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Online (Bangkok, Thailand)}},
  pages        = {{1654--1666}},
  publisher    = {{Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL)}},
  title        = {{A survey of code-switching : linguistic and social perspectives for language technologies}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.131}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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