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Effects of aleurone supplementation on glucose-insulin metabolism and gut microbiome in untrained healthy horses

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Abstract
Aleurone, a layer of the bran fraction, is deemed to be responsible for the positive health effects associated with the consumption of whole-grain products. Studies on rodents, pigs, and humans report beneficial effects of aleurone in five main areas: the reduction of oxidative stress, immunomodulatory effects, modulation of energy management, digestive health, and the storage of vitamins and minerals. Our study is the first aleurone supplementation study performed in horses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an increase in the dose levels of aleurone on the postprandial glucose-insulin metabolism and the gut microbiome in untrained healthy horses. Seven adult Standardbred horses were supplemented with four different dose levels of aleurone (50, 100, 200, and 400 g/day for 1 week) by using a Latin square model with a 1-week wash out in between doses. On day 7 of each supplementation week, postprandial blood glucose-insulin was measured and fecal samples were collected. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing was performed and QIIME2 software was used for microbiome analysis. Microbial community function was assessed by using the predictive metagenome analysis tool Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) and using the Metacyc database of metabolic pathways. The relative abundancies of a pathway were analyzed by using analysis of composition of microbiomes (ANCOM) in R. There was a significant dose-dependent increase in the postprandial time to peak of glucose (p = 0.030), a significant delay in the time to peak of insulin (p = 0.025), and a significant decrease in both the insulin peak level (p = 0.049) and insulin area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.019) with increasing dose levels of aleurone, with a consideration of 200 g being the lowest significant dose. Alpha diversity and beta diversity of the fecal microbiome showed no significant changes. Aleurone significantly decreased the relative abundance of the genera Roseburia, Shuttleworthia, Anaerostipes, Faecalibacter, and Succinovibrionaceae. The most pronounced changes in the relative abundance at phyla level were seen in Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia (downregulation) and Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes (upregulation). The PICRUSt analysis shows that aleurone induces a downregulation of the degradation of L-glutamate and taurine and an upregulation of the three consecutive pathways of the phospholipid membrane synthesis of the Archaea domain. The results of this study suggest a multimodal effect of aleurone on glucose-insulin metabolism, which is most likely to be caused by its effect on feed texture and subsequent digestive processing; and a synergistic effect of individual aleurone components on the glucose-insulin metabolism and microbiome composition and function.
Keywords
prebiotic, equine, insulin sensitivity, ferulic acid, betaine, gut health, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, HIGH-FAT DIET, WHOLE-GRAIN WHEAT, FACTOR-KAPPA-B, BETAINE SUPPLEMENTATION, FERULIC ACID, PHENOLIC-ACIDS, ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES, POSTPRANDIAL GLUCOSE, FECAL MICROBIOTA, BRAN

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MLA
Boshuizen, Berit, et al. “Effects of Aleurone Supplementation on Glucose-Insulin Metabolism and Gut Microbiome in Untrained Healthy Horses.” FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, vol. 8, 2021, doi:10.3389/fvets.2021.642809.
APA
Boshuizen, B., Vidal Moreno de Vega, C., De Maré, L., De meeûs, C., de Oliveira, J. E., Hosotani, G., … Delesalle, C. (2021). Effects of aleurone supplementation on glucose-insulin metabolism and gut microbiome in untrained healthy horses. FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.642809
Chicago author-date
Boshuizen, Berit, Carmen Vidal Moreno de Vega, Lorie De Maré, Constance De meeûs, Jean Eduardo de Oliveira, Guilherme Hosotani, Yannick Gansemans, Dieter Deforce, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, and Catherine Delesalle. 2021. “Effects of Aleurone Supplementation on Glucose-Insulin Metabolism and Gut Microbiome in Untrained Healthy Horses.” FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.642809.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Boshuizen, Berit, Carmen Vidal Moreno de Vega, Lorie De Maré, Constance De meeûs, Jean Eduardo de Oliveira, Guilherme Hosotani, Yannick Gansemans, Dieter Deforce, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, and Catherine Delesalle. 2021. “Effects of Aleurone Supplementation on Glucose-Insulin Metabolism and Gut Microbiome in Untrained Healthy Horses.” FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE 8. doi:10.3389/fvets.2021.642809.
Vancouver
1.
Boshuizen B, Vidal Moreno de Vega C, De Maré L, De meeûs C, de Oliveira JE, Hosotani G, et al. Effects of aleurone supplementation on glucose-insulin metabolism and gut microbiome in untrained healthy horses. FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE. 2021;8.
IEEE
[1]
B. Boshuizen et al., “Effects of aleurone supplementation on glucose-insulin metabolism and gut microbiome in untrained healthy horses,” FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, vol. 8, 2021.
@article{8711719,
  abstract     = {{Aleurone, a layer of the bran fraction, is deemed to be responsible for the positive health effects associated with the consumption of whole-grain products. Studies on rodents, pigs, and humans report beneficial effects of aleurone in five main areas: the reduction of oxidative stress, immunomodulatory effects, modulation of energy management, digestive health, and the storage of vitamins and minerals. Our study is the first aleurone supplementation study performed in horses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an increase in the dose levels of aleurone on the postprandial glucose-insulin metabolism and the gut microbiome in untrained healthy horses. Seven adult Standardbred horses were supplemented with four different dose levels of aleurone (50, 100, 200, and 400 g/day for 1 week) by using a Latin square model with a 1-week wash out in between doses. On day 7 of each supplementation week, postprandial blood glucose-insulin was measured and fecal samples were collected. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing was performed and QIIME2 software was used for microbiome analysis. Microbial community function was assessed by using the predictive metagenome analysis tool Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) and using the Metacyc database of metabolic pathways. The relative abundancies of a pathway were analyzed by using analysis of composition of microbiomes (ANCOM) in R. There was a significant dose-dependent increase in the postprandial time to peak of glucose (p = 0.030), a significant delay in the time to peak of insulin (p = 0.025), and a significant decrease in both the insulin peak level (p = 0.049) and insulin area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.019) with increasing dose levels of aleurone, with a consideration of 200 g being the lowest significant dose. Alpha diversity and beta diversity of the fecal microbiome showed no significant changes. Aleurone significantly decreased the relative abundance of the genera Roseburia, Shuttleworthia, Anaerostipes, Faecalibacter, and Succinovibrionaceae. The most pronounced changes in the relative abundance at phyla level were seen in Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia (downregulation) and Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes (upregulation). The PICRUSt analysis shows that aleurone induces a downregulation of the degradation of L-glutamate and taurine and an upregulation of the three consecutive pathways of the phospholipid membrane synthesis of the Archaea domain. The results of this study suggest a multimodal effect of aleurone on glucose-insulin metabolism, which is most likely to be caused by its effect on feed texture and subsequent digestive processing; and a synergistic effect of individual aleurone components on the glucose-insulin metabolism and microbiome composition and function.}},
  articleno    = {{642809}},
  author       = {{Boshuizen, Berit and Vidal Moreno de Vega, Carmen and De Maré, Lorie and De meeûs, Constance and de Oliveira, Jean Eduardo and Hosotani, Guilherme and Gansemans, Yannick and Deforce, Dieter and Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip and Delesalle, Catherine}},
  issn         = {{2297-1769}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE}},
  keywords     = {{prebiotic,equine,insulin sensitivity,ferulic acid,betaine,gut health,Firmicutes,Bacteroidetes,HIGH-FAT DIET,WHOLE-GRAIN WHEAT,FACTOR-KAPPA-B,BETAINE SUPPLEMENTATION,FERULIC ACID,PHENOLIC-ACIDS,ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES,POSTPRANDIAL GLUCOSE,FECAL MICROBIOTA,BRAN}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Effects of aleurone supplementation on glucose-insulin metabolism and gut microbiome in untrained healthy horses}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.642809}},
  volume       = {{8}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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