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Seasonal phenology of the major insect pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their natural enemies in a traditional zone and two new production zones of Peru

(2020) AGRICULTURE-BASEL. 10(12).
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Abstract
Over the last decade, the sown area of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been increasingly expanding in Peru, and new production fields have emerged, stretching from the Andes to coastal areas. The fields at low altitudes have the potential to produce higher yields than those in the highlands. This study investigated the occurrence of insect pests and the natural enemies of quinoa in a traditional production zone, San Lorenzo (in the Andes), and in two new zones at lower altitudes, La Molina (on the coast) and Majes (in the "Maritime Yunga" ecoregion), by plant sampling and pitfall trapping. Our data indicated that the pest pressure in quinoa was higher at lower elevations than in the highlands. The major insect pest infesting quinoa at high densities in San Lorenzo was Eurysacca melanocampta; in La Molina, the major pests were E. melanocampta, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Liriomyza huidobrensis; and in Majes, Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant pest. The natural enemy complex played an important role in controlling M. euphorbiae and L. huidobrensis by preventing pest resurgence. The findings of this study may assist quinoa producers (from the Andes and from regions at lower altitudes) in establishing better farming practices in the framework of integrated pest management.
Keywords
quinoa, Eurysacca melanocampta, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Liriomyza huidobrensis, Frankliniella occidentalis, natural enemies, IPM, Peru, HYMENOPTERA-BRACONIDAE APHIDIINAE, DIPTERA AGROMYZIDAE, HEMIPTERA, IDENTIFICATION, HETEROPTERA, PARASITOIDS, CHRYSOMELIDAE, ASSOCIATIONS, PSYLLOIDEA, COLEOPTERA

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Citation

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MLA
Cruces, Luis Miguel, et al. “Seasonal Phenology of the Major Insect Pests of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Their Natural Enemies in a Traditional Zone and Two New Production Zones of Peru.” AGRICULTURE-BASEL, vol. 10, no. 12, 2020, doi:10.3390/agriculture10120644.
APA
Cruces, L. M., de la Pena, E., & De Clercq, P. (2020). Seasonal phenology of the major insect pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their natural enemies in a traditional zone and two new production zones of Peru. AGRICULTURE-BASEL, 10(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10120644
Chicago author-date
Cruces, Luis Miguel, Eduardo de la Pena, and Patrick De Clercq. 2020. “Seasonal Phenology of the Major Insect Pests of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Their Natural Enemies in a Traditional Zone and Two New Production Zones of Peru.” AGRICULTURE-BASEL 10 (12). https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10120644.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Cruces, Luis Miguel, Eduardo de la Pena, and Patrick De Clercq. 2020. “Seasonal Phenology of the Major Insect Pests of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Their Natural Enemies in a Traditional Zone and Two New Production Zones of Peru.” AGRICULTURE-BASEL 10 (12). doi:10.3390/agriculture10120644.
Vancouver
1.
Cruces LM, de la Pena E, De Clercq P. Seasonal phenology of the major insect pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their natural enemies in a traditional zone and two new production zones of Peru. AGRICULTURE-BASEL. 2020;10(12).
IEEE
[1]
L. M. Cruces, E. de la Pena, and P. De Clercq, “Seasonal phenology of the major insect pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their natural enemies in a traditional zone and two new production zones of Peru,” AGRICULTURE-BASEL, vol. 10, no. 12, 2020.
@article{8710798,
  abstract     = {{Over the last decade, the sown area of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been increasingly expanding in Peru, and new production fields have emerged, stretching from the Andes to coastal areas. The fields at low altitudes have the potential to produce higher yields than those in the highlands. This study investigated the occurrence of insect pests and the natural enemies of quinoa in a traditional production zone, San Lorenzo (in the Andes), and in two new zones at lower altitudes, La Molina (on the coast) and Majes (in the "Maritime Yunga" ecoregion), by plant sampling and pitfall trapping. Our data indicated that the pest pressure in quinoa was higher at lower elevations than in the highlands. The major insect pest infesting quinoa at high densities in San Lorenzo was Eurysacca melanocampta; in La Molina, the major pests were E. melanocampta, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Liriomyza huidobrensis; and in Majes, Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant pest. The natural enemy complex played an important role in controlling M. euphorbiae and L. huidobrensis by preventing pest resurgence. The findings of this study may assist quinoa producers (from the Andes and from regions at lower altitudes) in establishing better farming practices in the framework of integrated pest management.}},
  articleno    = {{644}},
  author       = {{Cruces, Luis Miguel and de la Pena, Eduardo and De Clercq, Patrick}},
  issn         = {{2077-0472}},
  journal      = {{AGRICULTURE-BASEL}},
  keywords     = {{quinoa,Eurysacca melanocampta,Macrosiphum euphorbiae,Liriomyza huidobrensis,Frankliniella occidentalis,natural enemies,IPM,Peru,HYMENOPTERA-BRACONIDAE APHIDIINAE,DIPTERA AGROMYZIDAE,HEMIPTERA,IDENTIFICATION,HETEROPTERA,PARASITOIDS,CHRYSOMELIDAE,ASSOCIATIONS,PSYLLOIDEA,COLEOPTERA}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Seasonal phenology of the major insect pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their natural enemies in a traditional zone and two new production zones of Peru}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10120644}},
  volume       = {{10}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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