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Piloting a surveillance system to monitor the global patterns of drug efficacy and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in soil-transmitted helminth control programs : a Starworms study protocol

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Abstract
To eliminate soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections as a public health problem, the administration of benzimidazole (BZ) drugs to children has recently intensified. But, as drug pressure increases, the development of anthelmintic drug resistance (AR) becomes a major concern. Currently, there is no global surveillance system to monitor drug efficacy and the emergence of AR. Consequently, it is unclear what the current efficacy of the used drugs is and whether AR is already present. The aim of this study is to pilot a global surveillance system to assess anthelmintic drug efficacy and the emergence of AR in STH control programs. For this, we will incorporate drug efficacy trials into national STH control programs of eight countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal and a yet to be defined country in the Americas). In each country, one trial will be performed in one program implementation unit to assess the efficacy of BZ drugs against STHs in school-aged children by faecal egg count reduction test. Stool samples will be collected before and after treatment with BZs for Kato-Katz analysis and preserved to purify parasite DNA. The presence and frequency of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the β-tubulin genes of the different STHs will subsequently be assessed. This study will provide a global pattern of drug efficacy and emergence of AR in STH control programs. The results will provide complementary insights on the validity of known SNPs in the ß-tubulin gene as a marker for AR in human STHs as well as information on the technical and financial resources required to set up a surveillance system. Finally, the collected stool samples will be an important resource to validate different molecular technologies for the detection of AR markers or to identify novel potential molecular markers associated with AR in STH.

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MLA
Vlaminck, Johnny, et al. “Piloting a Surveillance System to Monitor the Global Patterns of Drug Efficacy and the Emergence of Anthelmintic Resistance in Soil-Transmitted Helminth Control Programs : A Starworms Study Protocol.” GATES OPEN RESEARCH, vol. 4, 2020, doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13115.1.
APA
Vlaminck, J., Cools, P., Albonico, M., Ame, S., Chanthapaseuth, T., Viengxay, V., … Levecke, B. (2020). Piloting a surveillance system to monitor the global patterns of drug efficacy and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in soil-transmitted helminth control programs : a Starworms study protocol. GATES OPEN RESEARCH, 4. https://doi.org/10.12688/gatesopenres.13115.1
Chicago author-date
Vlaminck, Johnny, Piet Cools, Marco Albonico, Shaali Ame, Thipphavanh Chanthapaseuth, Vanisaveth Viengxay, Dung Do Trung, et al. 2020. “Piloting a Surveillance System to Monitor the Global Patterns of Drug Efficacy and the Emergence of Anthelmintic Resistance in Soil-Transmitted Helminth Control Programs : A Starworms Study Protocol.” GATES OPEN RESEARCH 4. https://doi.org/10.12688/gatesopenres.13115.1.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vlaminck, Johnny, Piet Cools, Marco Albonico, Shaali Ame, Thipphavanh Chanthapaseuth, Vanisaveth Viengxay, Dung Do Trung, Mike Y. Osei-Atweneboana, Elias Asuming-Brempong, Mohammad Jahirul Karim, Abdullah Al Kawsar, Jennifer Keiser, Virak Khieu, Babacar Faye, Innocent Turate, Jean Bosco Mbonigaba, Nadine Ruijeni, Eliah Shema, Ana Luciañez, Ruben Santiago Nicholls, Mohamed Jamsheed, Alexei Mikhailova, Antonio Montresor, Denise Mupfasoni, Aya Yajima, Pauline Ngina Mwinzi, John Gilleard, Roger K. Prichard, Jaco J. Verweij, Jozef Vercruysse, and Bruno Levecke. 2020. “Piloting a Surveillance System to Monitor the Global Patterns of Drug Efficacy and the Emergence of Anthelmintic Resistance in Soil-Transmitted Helminth Control Programs : A Starworms Study Protocol.” GATES OPEN RESEARCH 4. doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13115.1.
Vancouver
1.
Vlaminck J, Cools P, Albonico M, Ame S, Chanthapaseuth T, Viengxay V, et al. Piloting a surveillance system to monitor the global patterns of drug efficacy and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in soil-transmitted helminth control programs : a Starworms study protocol. GATES OPEN RESEARCH. 2020;4.
IEEE
[1]
J. Vlaminck et al., “Piloting a surveillance system to monitor the global patterns of drug efficacy and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in soil-transmitted helminth control programs : a Starworms study protocol,” GATES OPEN RESEARCH, vol. 4, 2020.
@article{8709085,
  abstract     = {{To eliminate soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections as a public health problem, the administration of benzimidazole (BZ) drugs to children has recently intensified. But, as drug pressure increases, the development of anthelmintic drug resistance (AR) becomes a major concern. Currently, there is no global surveillance system to monitor drug efficacy and the emergence of AR. Consequently, it is unclear what the current efficacy of the used drugs is and whether AR is already present. The aim of this study is to pilot a global surveillance system to assess anthelmintic drug efficacy and the emergence of AR in STH control programs. For this, we will incorporate drug efficacy trials into national STH control programs of eight countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal and a yet to be defined country in the Americas). In each country, one trial will be performed in one program implementation unit to assess the efficacy of BZ drugs against STHs in school-aged children by faecal egg count reduction test. Stool samples will be collected before and after treatment with BZs for Kato-Katz analysis and preserved to purify parasite DNA. The presence and frequency of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the β-tubulin genes of the different STHs will subsequently be assessed. This study will provide a global pattern of drug efficacy and emergence of AR in STH control programs. The results will provide complementary insights on the validity of known SNPs in the ß-tubulin gene as a marker for AR in human STHs as well as information on the technical and financial resources required to set up a surveillance system. Finally, the collected stool samples will be an important resource to validate different molecular technologies for the detection of AR markers or to identify novel potential molecular markers associated with AR in STH.}},
  articleno    = {{28}},
  author       = {{Vlaminck, Johnny and Cools, Piet and Albonico, Marco and Ame, Shaali and Chanthapaseuth, Thipphavanh and Viengxay, Vanisaveth and Do Trung, Dung and Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y. and Asuming-Brempong, Elias and Jahirul Karim, Mohammad and Al Kawsar, Abdullah and Keiser, Jennifer and Khieu, Virak and Faye, Babacar and Turate, Innocent and Mbonigaba, Jean Bosco and Ruijeni, Nadine and Shema, Eliah and Luciañez, Ana and Santiago Nicholls, Ruben and Jamsheed, Mohamed and Mikhailova, Alexei and Montresor, Antonio and Mupfasoni, Denise and Yajima, Aya and Ngina Mwinzi, Pauline and Gilleard, John and Prichard, Roger K. and Verweij, Jaco J. and Vercruysse, Jozef and Levecke, Bruno}},
  issn         = {{2572-4754}},
  journal      = {{GATES OPEN RESEARCH}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Piloting a surveillance system to monitor the global patterns of drug efficacy and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in soil-transmitted helminth control programs : a Starworms study protocol}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/gatesopenres.13115.1}},
  volume       = {{4}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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