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Follow-up effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the major depressive episode : a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is an effective treatment during the acute phase of a major depressive episode (MDE), although the evidence for its follow-up efficacy is mixed. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus (EMBASE), Web of Science, Cochrane Library and additional sources were searched from inception to April 29, 2021. Studies that followed up adults treated with tDCS during an MDE - using (interventional) and/or not using (observational) tDCS in the follow-up period were included. The primary outcome was the Hedges' g for the follow-up depression scores. Small study effects and sources of heterogeneity were explored. 427 studies were retrieved and 11 trials (13 datasets, n = 311) were included, most presenting moderate bias. Results showed a follow-up depression improvement (k = 13, g = -0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.28; -0.34, I-2 = 84.0%), which was probably driven by the interventional studies (k = 7, g = -1.12, 95% CI: -1.84; -0.40, I-2 = 87.1%). No predictor of response was associated with the outcome. No risk of publication bias was found. Significant between-study heterogeneity may have influenced the overall results. Our findings suggest that tDCS produces effects beyond the intervention period during MDEs. Maintenance sessions are advised in future research.
Keywords
Biological Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Mental health, Depression, Transcranial direct current stimulation, Meta-analysis, Follow-up, Long-term effects, DOUBLE-BLIND, CONTROLLED TRIAL, THERAPY, DISORDER

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MLA
Razza, Laís, et al. “Follow-up Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) for the Major Depressive Episode : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH, vol. 302, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114024.
APA
Razza, L., De Smet, S., Moffa, A., Sudbrack-Oliveira, P., Vanderhasselt, M.-A., & Brunoni, A. (2021). Follow-up effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the major depressive episode : a systematic review and meta-analysis. PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH, 302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114024
Chicago author-date
Razza, Laís, Stefanie De Smet, Adriano Moffa, Pedro Sudbrack-Oliveira, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, and André Brunoni. 2021. “Follow-up Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) for the Major Depressive Episode : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH 302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114024.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Razza, Laís, Stefanie De Smet, Adriano Moffa, Pedro Sudbrack-Oliveira, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, and André Brunoni. 2021. “Follow-up Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) for the Major Depressive Episode : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH 302. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114024.
Vancouver
1.
Razza L, De Smet S, Moffa A, Sudbrack-Oliveira P, Vanderhasselt M-A, Brunoni A. Follow-up effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the major depressive episode : a systematic review and meta-analysis. PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH. 2021;302.
IEEE
[1]
L. Razza, S. De Smet, A. Moffa, P. Sudbrack-Oliveira, M.-A. Vanderhasselt, and A. Brunoni, “Follow-up effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the major depressive episode : a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH, vol. 302, 2021.
@article{8708950,
  abstract     = {{Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is an effective treatment during the acute phase of a major depressive episode (MDE), although the evidence for its follow-up efficacy is mixed. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus (EMBASE), Web of Science, Cochrane Library and additional sources were searched from inception to April 29, 2021. Studies that followed up adults treated with tDCS during an MDE - using (interventional) and/or not using (observational) tDCS in the follow-up period were included. The primary outcome was the Hedges' g for the follow-up depression scores. Small study effects and sources of heterogeneity were explored. 427 studies were retrieved and 11 trials (13 datasets, n = 311) were included, most presenting moderate bias. Results showed a follow-up depression improvement (k = 13, g = -0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.28; -0.34, I-2 = 84.0%), which was probably driven by the interventional studies (k = 7, g = -1.12, 95% CI: -1.84; -0.40, I-2 = 87.1%). No predictor of response was associated with the outcome. No risk of publication bias was found. Significant between-study heterogeneity may have influenced the overall results. Our findings suggest that tDCS produces effects beyond the intervention period during MDEs. Maintenance sessions are advised in future research.}},
  articleno    = {{114024}},
  author       = {{Razza, Laís and De Smet, Stefanie and Moffa, Adriano and Sudbrack-Oliveira, Pedro and Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne and Brunoni, André}},
  issn         = {{0165-1781}},
  journal      = {{PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH}},
  keywords     = {{Biological Psychiatry,Psychiatry and Mental health,Depression,Transcranial direct current stimulation,Meta-analysis,Follow-up,Long-term effects,DOUBLE-BLIND,CONTROLLED TRIAL,THERAPY,DISORDER}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{7}},
  title        = {{Follow-up effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the major depressive episode : a systematic review and meta-analysis}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114024}},
  volume       = {{302}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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