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Adults' online and offline psychological intimate partner violence experiences

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Abstract
Digital media offer ample possibilities for individuals to control and monitor their dating or romantic partner and to make hurtful comments. Although online psychological intimate partner violence has received increased research attention over the past few years, much remains unknown about its nature and its association with offline psychological intimate partner violence, especially among the adult population. Previous research remains inconclusive regarding the gendered nature of online intimate partner violence, and differences among various age groups have yet to be examined. The present study is intended to address these gaps in the literature by assessing the co-occurrence of psychological intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration, and the overlap between offline and online forms thereof. We conducted a large-scale survey study among a representative sample of 1,587 adults between the ages of 18 and 94 (M = 48.1, SD = 18.6), of which 1,144 (Mage = 47.7 years, 51.3% female) were in relationships at the time of data collection (2019). Our study findings indicate that experiences of online and offline psychological intimate partner violence tend to co-occur, as do victimization and perpetration experiences. Furthermore, we found that men were more often victims of both online and offline psychological partner violence than women, and women were more often perpetrators of both forms of psychological intimate partner violence than men. Younger age groups reported more victimization and perpetration of online and offline psychological intimate partner violence than older respondents. The results of our study underscore the need for age-appropriate intimate partner violence prevention.
Keywords
intimate partner violence, cyber dating abuse, psychological intimate partner violence, sex differences

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MLA
Schokkenbroek, Janneke M., et al. “Adults’ Online and Offline Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Experiences.” JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 2021, pp. 1–16, doi:10.1177/08862605211015217.
APA
Schokkenbroek, J. M., Van Ouytsel, J., Hardyns, W., & Ponnet, K. (2021). Adults’ online and offline psychological intimate partner violence experiences. JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605211015217
Chicago author-date
Schokkenbroek, Janneke M., Joris Van Ouytsel, Wim Hardyns, and Koen Ponnet. 2021. “Adults’ Online and Offline Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Experiences.” JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605211015217.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schokkenbroek, Janneke M., Joris Van Ouytsel, Wim Hardyns, and Koen Ponnet. 2021. “Adults’ Online and Offline Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Experiences.” JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE: 1–16. doi:10.1177/08862605211015217.
Vancouver
1.
Schokkenbroek JM, Van Ouytsel J, Hardyns W, Ponnet K. Adults’ online and offline psychological intimate partner violence experiences. JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE. 2021;1–16.
IEEE
[1]
J. M. Schokkenbroek, J. Van Ouytsel, W. Hardyns, and K. Ponnet, “Adults’ online and offline psychological intimate partner violence experiences,” JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, pp. 1–16, 2021.
@article{8707643,
  abstract     = {{Digital media offer ample possibilities for individuals to control and monitor their dating or romantic partner and to make hurtful comments. Although online psychological intimate partner violence has received increased research attention over the past few years, much remains unknown about its nature and its association with offline psychological intimate partner violence, especially among the adult population. Previous research remains inconclusive regarding the gendered nature of online intimate partner violence, and differences among various age groups have yet to be examined. The present study is intended to address these gaps in the literature by assessing the co-occurrence of psychological intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration, and the overlap between offline and online forms thereof. We conducted a large-scale survey study among a representative sample of 1,587 adults between the ages of 18 and 94 (M = 48.1, SD = 18.6), of which 1,144 (Mage = 47.7 years, 51.3% female) were in relationships at the time of data collection (2019). Our study findings indicate that experiences of online and offline psychological intimate partner violence tend to co-occur, as do victimization and perpetration experiences. Furthermore, we found that men were more often victims of both online and offline psychological partner violence than women, and women were more often perpetrators of both forms of psychological intimate partner violence than men. Younger age groups reported more victimization and perpetration of online and offline psychological intimate partner violence than older respondents. The results of our study underscore the need for age-appropriate intimate partner violence prevention.}},
  author       = {{Schokkenbroek, Janneke M. and Van Ouytsel, Joris and Hardyns, Wim and Ponnet, Koen}},
  issn         = {{0886-2605}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE}},
  keywords     = {{intimate partner violence,cyber dating abuse,psychological intimate partner violence,sex differences}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{1--16}},
  title        = {{Adults' online and offline psychological intimate partner violence experiences}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08862605211015217}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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