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Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Tomography

(2021) MATERIALS. 14(9).
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Abstract
The applications of polymeric sponges are varied, ranging from cleaning and filtration to medical applications. The specific properties of polymeric foams, such as pore size and connectivity, are dependent on their constituent materials and production methods. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray micro-computed tomography (mu CT) offer complementary information about the structure and properties of porous media. In this study, we employed MRI, in combination with mu CT, to characterize the structure of polymeric open-cell foam, and to determine how it changes upon compression, mu CT was used to identify the morphology of the pores within sponge plugs, extracted from polyurethane open-cell sponges. MRI T-2 relaxation maps and bulk T-2 relaxation times measurements were performed for 7 degrees dH water contained within the same polyurethane foams used for mu CT. Magnetic resonance and mu CT measurements were conducted on both uncompressed and 60% compressed sponge plugs. Compression was achieved using a graduated sample holder with plunger. A relationship between the average T-2 relaxation time and maximum opening was observed, where smaller maximum openings were found to have a shorter T-2 relaxation times. It was also found that upon compression, the average maximum opening of pores decreased. Average pore size ranges of 375-632 +/- 1 mu m, for uncompressed plugs, and 301-473 +/- 1 mu m, for compressed plugs, were observed. By determining maximum opening values and T-2 relaxation times, it was observed that the pore structure varies between sponges within the same production batch, as well as even with a single sponge.
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General Materials Science

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MLA
Cimmarusti, Gabriele M., et al. “Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-Ray Tomography.” MATERIALS, vol. 14, no. 9, 2021, doi:10.3390/ma14092187.
APA
Cimmarusti, G. M., Shastry, A., Boone, M., Cnudde, V., Braeckman, K., Brooker, A. D. M., … Britton, M. M. (2021). Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Tomography. MATERIALS, 14(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092187
Chicago author-date
Cimmarusti, Gabriele M., Abhishek Shastry, Matthieu Boone, Veerle Cnudde, Karl Braeckman, Anju D. M. Brooker, Eric S. J. Robles, and Melanie M. Britton. 2021. “Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-Ray Tomography.” MATERIALS 14 (9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092187.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Cimmarusti, Gabriele M., Abhishek Shastry, Matthieu Boone, Veerle Cnudde, Karl Braeckman, Anju D. M. Brooker, Eric S. J. Robles, and Melanie M. Britton. 2021. “Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-Ray Tomography.” MATERIALS 14 (9). doi:10.3390/ma14092187.
Vancouver
1.
Cimmarusti GM, Shastry A, Boone M, Cnudde V, Braeckman K, Brooker ADM, et al. Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Tomography. MATERIALS. 2021;14(9).
IEEE
[1]
G. M. Cimmarusti et al., “Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Tomography,” MATERIALS, vol. 14, no. 9, 2021.
@article{8707614,
  abstract     = {{The applications of polymeric sponges are varied, ranging from cleaning and filtration to medical applications. The specific properties of polymeric foams, such as pore size and connectivity, are dependent on their constituent materials and production methods. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray micro-computed tomography (mu CT) offer complementary information about the structure and properties of porous media. In this study, we employed MRI, in combination with mu CT, to characterize the structure of polymeric open-cell foam, and to determine how it changes upon compression, mu CT was used to identify the morphology of the pores within sponge plugs, extracted from polyurethane open-cell sponges. MRI T-2 relaxation maps and bulk T-2 relaxation times measurements were performed for 7 degrees dH water contained within the same polyurethane foams used for mu CT. Magnetic resonance and mu CT measurements were conducted on both uncompressed and 60% compressed sponge plugs. Compression was achieved using a graduated sample holder with plunger. A relationship between the average T-2 relaxation time and maximum opening was observed, where smaller maximum openings were found to have a shorter T-2 relaxation times. It was also found that upon compression, the average maximum opening of pores decreased. Average pore size ranges of 375-632 +/- 1 mu m, for uncompressed plugs, and 301-473 +/- 1 mu m, for compressed plugs, were observed. By determining maximum opening values and T-2 relaxation times, it was observed that the pore structure varies between sponges within the same production batch, as well as even with a single sponge.}},
  articleno    = {{2187}},
  author       = {{Cimmarusti, Gabriele M. and Shastry, Abhishek and Boone, Matthieu and Cnudde, Veerle and Braeckman, Karl and Brooker, Anju D. M. and Robles, Eric S. J. and Britton, Melanie M.}},
  issn         = {{1996-1944}},
  journal      = {{MATERIALS}},
  keywords     = {{General Materials Science}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{9}},
  pages        = {{13}},
  title        = {{Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Tomography}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092187}},
  volume       = {{14}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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