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Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of conformal GeSe for application as an OTS selector

(2021) MATERIALS ADVANCES. 2(5). p.1635-1643
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Abstract
The ovonic threshold switch (OTS) selector based on the voltage snapback of amorphous chalcogenides has received tremendous attention as it provides several desirable characteristics such as bidirectional switching, a controllable threshold voltage, high drive currents, and low leakage currents. GeSe is a well-known OTS selector that fulfills all the requirements imposed by future high-density storage class memories. Here, we report on pulsed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of amorphous GeSe by using GeCl2 center dot C4H8O2 as a Ge source and two different Se sources namely bis-trimethylsilylselenide ((CH3)(3)Si)(2)Se (TMS)(2)Se and bis-triethylsilylselenide ((C2H5)(3)Si)(2)Se (TES)(2)Se. We utilized total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to study the kinetics of precursor adsorption on the Si substrate. GeCl2 center dot C4H8O2 precursor adsorption on a 300 mm Si substrate showed under-dosing due to limited precursor supply. On the other hand, the Se precursor adsorption is limited by low reaction efficiency as we learned from a better within-wafer uniformity. Se precursors need Cl sites (from Ge precursor) for precursor ligand exchange reactions. Adsorption of (TMS)(2)Se is found to be much faster than (TES)(2)Se on a precoated GeClx layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) tests with GeCl2 center dot C4H8O2 and (TMS)(2)Se revealed that the growth per cycle (GPC) decreases with the introduction of purge steps in the ALD cycle, whereas a higher GPC is obtained in pulsed-CVD mode without purges. Based on this basic understanding of the process, we developed a pulsed CVD growth recipe (GPC = 0.3 angstrom per cycle) of GeSe using GeCl2 center dot C4H8O2 and (TMS)(2)Se at a reactor temperature of 70 degrees C. The 20 nm GeSe layer is amorphous and stoichiometric with traces of chlorine and carbon impurities. The film has a roughness of similar to 0.3 nm and it starts to crystallize at a temperature of similar to 370 degrees C. GeSe grown on 3D test structures showed excellent film conformality.
Keywords
ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION, ALKYLSILYL COMPOUNDS, LIGAND-EXCHANGE, ((CH3)(3)SI)(2)TE, TELLURIUM, GETE, FILM, SB

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MLA
Haider, Ali, et al. “Pulsed Chemical Vapor Deposition of Conformal GeSe for Application as an OTS Selector.” MATERIALS ADVANCES, vol. 2, no. 5, 2021, pp. 1635–43, doi:10.1039/d0ma01014f.
APA
Haider, A., Deng, S., Devulder, W., Maes, J. W., Girard, J.-M., Khalil El Hajjam, G., … Swerts, J. (2021). Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of conformal GeSe for application as an OTS selector. MATERIALS ADVANCES, 2(5), 1635–1643. https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ma01014f
Chicago author-date
Haider, Ali, Shaoren Deng, Wouter Devulder, Jan Willem Maes, Jean-Marc Girard, Gabriel Khalil El Hajjam, Gouri Sankar Kar, et al. 2021. “Pulsed Chemical Vapor Deposition of Conformal GeSe for Application as an OTS Selector.” MATERIALS ADVANCES 2 (5): 1635–43. https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ma01014f.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Haider, Ali, Shaoren Deng, Wouter Devulder, Jan Willem Maes, Jean-Marc Girard, Gabriel Khalil El Hajjam, Gouri Sankar Kar, Karl Opsomer, Christophe Detavernier, Michael Givens, Ludovic Goux, Sven Van Elshocht, Romain Delhougne, Annelies Delabie, Matty Caymax, and Johan Swerts. 2021. “Pulsed Chemical Vapor Deposition of Conformal GeSe for Application as an OTS Selector.” MATERIALS ADVANCES 2 (5): 1635–1643. doi:10.1039/d0ma01014f.
Vancouver
1.
Haider A, Deng S, Devulder W, Maes JW, Girard J-M, Khalil El Hajjam G, et al. Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of conformal GeSe for application as an OTS selector. MATERIALS ADVANCES. 2021;2(5):1635–43.
IEEE
[1]
A. Haider et al., “Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of conformal GeSe for application as an OTS selector,” MATERIALS ADVANCES, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 1635–1643, 2021.
@article{8706073,
  abstract     = {{The ovonic threshold switch (OTS) selector based on the voltage snapback of amorphous chalcogenides has received tremendous attention as it provides several desirable characteristics such as bidirectional switching, a controllable threshold voltage, high drive currents, and low leakage currents. GeSe is a well-known OTS selector that fulfills all the requirements imposed by future high-density storage class memories. Here, we report on pulsed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of amorphous GeSe by using GeCl2 center dot C4H8O2 as a Ge source and two different Se sources namely bis-trimethylsilylselenide ((CH3)(3)Si)(2)Se (TMS)(2)Se and bis-triethylsilylselenide ((C2H5)(3)Si)(2)Se (TES)(2)Se. We utilized total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to study the kinetics of precursor adsorption on the Si substrate. GeCl2 center dot C4H8O2 precursor adsorption on a 300 mm Si substrate showed under-dosing due to limited precursor supply. On the other hand, the Se precursor adsorption is limited by low reaction efficiency as we learned from a better within-wafer uniformity. Se precursors need Cl sites (from Ge precursor) for precursor ligand exchange reactions. Adsorption of (TMS)(2)Se is found to be much faster than (TES)(2)Se on a precoated GeClx layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) tests with GeCl2 center dot C4H8O2 and (TMS)(2)Se revealed that the growth per cycle (GPC) decreases with the introduction of purge steps in the ALD cycle, whereas a higher GPC is obtained in pulsed-CVD mode without purges. Based on this basic understanding of the process, we developed a pulsed CVD growth recipe (GPC = 0.3 angstrom per cycle) of GeSe using GeCl2 center dot C4H8O2 and (TMS)(2)Se at a reactor temperature of 70 degrees C. The 20 nm GeSe layer is amorphous and stoichiometric with traces of chlorine and carbon impurities. The film has a roughness of similar to 0.3 nm and it starts to crystallize at a temperature of similar to 370 degrees C. GeSe grown on 3D test structures showed excellent film conformality.}},
  author       = {{Haider, Ali and Deng, Shaoren and Devulder, Wouter and Maes, Jan Willem and Girard, Jean-Marc and Khalil El Hajjam, Gabriel and Kar, Gouri Sankar and Opsomer, Karl and Detavernier, Christophe and Givens, Michael and Goux, Ludovic and Van Elshocht, Sven and Delhougne, Romain and Delabie, Annelies and Caymax, Matty and Swerts, Johan}},
  issn         = {{2633-5409}},
  journal      = {{MATERIALS ADVANCES}},
  keywords     = {{ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION,ALKYLSILYL COMPOUNDS,LIGAND-EXCHANGE,((CH3)(3)SI)(2)TE,TELLURIUM,GETE,FILM,SB}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{1635--1643}},
  title        = {{Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of conformal GeSe for application as an OTS selector}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ma01014f}},
  volume       = {{2}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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