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Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts Using HAWC and IceCube Subthreshold Data

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Abstract
The High Altitude Water Cerenkov (HAWC) and IceCube observatories, through the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) framework, have developed a multimessenger joint search for extragalactic astrophysical sources. This analysis looks for sources that emit both cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays that are produced in photohadronic or hadronic interactions. The AMON system is running continuously, receiving subthreshold data (i.e., data that are not suited on their own to do astrophysical searches) from HAWC and IceCube, and combining them in real time. Here we present the analysis algorithm, as well as results from archival data collected between 2015 June and 2018 August, with a total live time of 3.0 yr. During this period we found two coincident events that have a false-alarm rate (FAR) of <1 coincidence yr(-1), consistent with the background expectations. The real-time implementation of the analysis in the AMON system began on 2019 November 20 and issues alerts to the community through the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network with an FAR threshold of <4 coincidences yr(-1).

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MLA
Solares, H. A. Ayala, et al. “Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts Using HAWC and IceCube Subthreshold Data.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 906, no. 1, Iop Publishing Ltd, 2021, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abcaa4.
APA
Solares, H. A. A., Coutu, S., DeLaunay, J. J., Fox, D. B., Gregoire, T., Keivani, A., … Zocklein, M. (2021). Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts Using HAWC and IceCube Subthreshold Data. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 906(1). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abcaa4
Chicago author-date
Solares, H. A. Ayala, S. Coutu, J. J. DeLaunay, D. B. Fox, T. Gregoire, A. Keivani, F. Krauss, et al. 2021. “Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts Using HAWC and IceCube Subthreshold Data.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 906 (1). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abcaa4.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Solares, H. A. Ayala, S. Coutu, J. J. DeLaunay, D. B. Fox, T. Gregoire, A. Keivani, F. Krauss, M. Mostafa, K. Murase, C. F. Turley, A. Albert, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. R. Angeles Camacho, J. C. Arteaga-Velazquez, K. P. Arunbabu, D. Avila Rojas, E. Belmont-Moreno, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, A. Carraminana, S. Casanova, U. Cotti, E. De la Fuente, R. Diaz Hernandez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. DuVernois, M. Durocher, J. C. Diaz-Velez, C. Espinoza, K. L. Fan, H. Fleischhack, N. Fraija, A. Galvan-Gamez, D. Garcia, J. A. Garcia-Gonzalez, F. Garfias, M. M. Gonzalez, J. A. Goodman, J. P. Harding, B. Hona, D. Huang, F. Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, P. Huntemeyer, A. Iriarte, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, H. Leon Vargas, J. T. Linnemann, A. L. Longinotti, G. Luis-Raya, J. Lundeen, K. Malone, O. Martinez, I. Martinez-Castellanos, J. Martinez-Castro, J. A. Matthews, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, E. Moreno, L. Nellen, M. Newbold, M. U. Nisa, R. Noriega-Papaqui, A. Peisker, E. G. Perez-Perez, C. D. Rho, D. Rosa-Gonzalez, H. Salazar, F. Salesa Greus, A. Sandoval, A. J. Smith, R. W. Springer, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, R. Torres-Escobedo, F. Urena-Mena, L. Villasenor, T. Weisgarber, E. Willox, A. Zepeda, H. Zhou, C. de Leon, M. G. Aartsen, R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. V. Balagopal, A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Boser, O. Botner, J. Bottcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, A. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, T. Glauch, T. Glusenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Gunder, M. Gunduz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hunnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Kopke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Kruckl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczynska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, J. Lunemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, I. C. Maris, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Perez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, Alessio Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schroder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Sturwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, L. Tomankova, C. Tonnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, Stef Verpoest, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and M. Zocklein. 2021. “Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts Using HAWC and IceCube Subthreshold Data.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 906 (1). doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abcaa4.
Vancouver
1.
Solares HAA, Coutu S, DeLaunay JJ, Fox DB, Gregoire T, Keivani A, et al. Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts Using HAWC and IceCube Subthreshold Data. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2021;906(1).
IEEE
[1]
H. A. A. Solares et al., “Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts Using HAWC and IceCube Subthreshold Data,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 906, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8705942,
  abstract     = {{The High Altitude Water Cerenkov (HAWC) and IceCube observatories, through the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) framework, have developed a multimessenger joint search for extragalactic astrophysical sources. This analysis looks for sources that emit both cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays that are produced in photohadronic or hadronic interactions. The AMON system is running continuously, receiving subthreshold data (i.e., data that are not suited on their own to do astrophysical searches) from HAWC and IceCube, and combining them in real time. Here we present the analysis algorithm, as well as results from archival data collected between 2015 June and 2018 August, with a total live time of 3.0 yr. During this period we found two coincident events that have a false-alarm rate (FAR) of <1 coincidence yr(-1), consistent with the background expectations. The real-time implementation of the analysis in the AMON system began on 2019 November 20 and issues alerts to the community through the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network with an FAR threshold of <4 coincidences yr(-1).}},
  articleno    = {{63}},
  author       = {{Solares, H. A. Ayala and Coutu, S. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Fox, D. B. and Gregoire, T. and Keivani, A. and Krauss, F. and Mostafa, M. and Murase, K. and Turley, C. F. and Albert, A. and Alfaro, R. and Alvarez, C. and Camacho, J. R. Angeles and Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C. and Arunbabu, K. P. and Rojas, D. Avila and Belmont-Moreno, E. and Brisbois, C. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Carraminana, A. and Casanova, S. and Cotti, U. and Fuente, E. De la and Hernandez, R. Diaz and Dingus, B. L. and DuVernois, M. A. and Durocher, M. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Espinoza, C. and Fan, K. L. and Fleischhack, H. and Fraija, N. and Galvan-Gamez, A. and Garcia, D. and Garcia-Gonzalez, J. A. and Garfias, F. and Gonzalez, M. M. and Goodman, J. A. and Harding, J. P. and Hona, B. and Huang, D. and Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F. and Huntemeyer, P. and Iriarte, A. and Jardin-Blicq, A. and Joshi, V. and Vargas, H. Leon and Linnemann, J. T. and Longinotti, A. L. and Luis-Raya, G. and Lundeen, J. and Malone, K. and Martinez, O. and Martinez-Castellanos, I. and Martinez-Castro, J. and Matthews, J. A. and Miranda-Romagnoli, P. and Moreno, E. and Nellen, L. and Newbold, M. and Nisa, M. U. and Noriega-Papaqui, R. and Peisker, A. and Perez-Perez, E. G. and Rho, C. D. and Rosa-Gonzalez, D. and Salazar, H. and Greus, F. Salesa and Sandoval, A. and Smith, A. J. and Springer, R. W. and Tollefson, K. and Torres, I. and Torres-Escobedo, R. and Urena-Mena, F. and Villasenor, L. and Weisgarber, T. and Willox, E. and Zepeda, A. and Zhou, H. and Leon, C. de and Aartsen, M. G. and Abbasi, R. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Amin, N. M. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Balagopal, A. V. and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Bastian, B. and Basu, V. and Baum, V. and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. -H. and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Boser, S. and Botner, O. and Bottcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Buscher, J. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Choi, S. and Clark, B. A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coleman, A. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and Clercq, C. De and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desai, A. and Desiati, P. and Vries, K. D. de and Wasseige, G. de and With, M. de and DeYoung, T. and Dharani, S. and Diaz, A. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and Dvorak, E. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Engel, R. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Fienberg, A. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Glauch, T. and Glusenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Griswold, S. and Gunder, M. and Gunduz, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halliday, R. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hardin, J. and Haungs, A. and Hauser, S. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Heix, P. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, C. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Huber, T. and Hultqvist, K. and Hunnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jansson, M. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jonske, F. and Joppe, R. and Kang, D. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Kellermann, M. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kin, K. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Kopke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Koundal, P. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kruckl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Leszczynska, A. and Li, Y. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Ludwig, A. and Lunemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Lyu, Y. and Ma, W. Y. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallik, P. and Mancina, S. and Maris, I. C. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and McNally, F. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Merz, J. and Meures, T. and Micallef, J. and Mockler, D. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Muth, P. and Nagai, R. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Nguyen, L. V. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Oehler, M. and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D. V. and Park, N. and Parker, G. K. and Paudel, E. N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Philippen, S. and Pieloth, D. and Pieper, S. and Pinat, E. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Popovych, Y. and Porcelli, Alessio and Rodriguez, M. Prado and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Rehman, A. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renschler, M. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Riedel, B. and Robertson, S. and Roellinghoff, G. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Cantu, D. Rysewyk and Safa, I. and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Scharf, M. and Schaufel, M. and Schieler, H. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schroder, F. G. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Shefali, S. and Silva, M. and Smithers, B. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Sturwald, T. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Taboada, I. and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Tomankova, L. and Tonnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Trettin, A. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and Eijk, D. van and Eijndhoven, N. van and Vannerom, D. and Santen, J. van and Verpoest, Stef and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weindl, A. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Wulff, J. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T. and Zhang, Z. and Zocklein, M.}},
  issn         = {{0004-637X}},
  journal      = {{ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{10}},
  publisher    = {{Iop Publishing Ltd}},
  title        = {{Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts Using HAWC and IceCube Subthreshold Data}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abcaa4}},
  volume       = {{906}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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