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Measurements of the time-dependent cosmic-ray Sun shadow with seven years of IceCube data : comparison with the solar cycle and magnetic field models

(2021) PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 103(4).
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Abstract
Observations of the time-dependent cosmic-ray Sun shadow have been proven as a valuable diagnostic for the assessment of solar magnetic field models. In this paper, seven years of IceCube data are compared to solar activity and solar magnetic field models. A quantitative comparison of solar magnetic field models with IceCube data on the event rate level is performed for the first time. Additionally, a first energy-dependent analysis is presented and compared to recent predictions. We use seven years of IceCube data for the moon and the Sun and compare them to simulations on data rate level. The simulations are performed for the geometrical shadow hypothesis for the moon and the Sun and for a cosmic-ray propagation model governed by the solar magnetic field for the case of the Sun. We find that a linearly decreasing relationship between Sun shadow strength and solar activity is preferred over a constant relationship at the 6.4 sigma level. We test two commonly used models of the coronal magnetic field, both combined with a Parker spiral, by modeling cosmic-ray propagation in the solar magnetic field. Both models predict a weakening of the shadow in times of high solar activity as it is also visible in the data. We find tensions with the data on the order of 3 sigma for both models, assuming only statistical uncertainties. The magnetic field model CSSS fits the data slightly better than the PFSS model. This is generally consistent with what is found previously by the Tibet AS-gamma Experiment; a deviation of the data from the two models is, however, not significant at this point. Regarding the energy dependence of the Sun shadow, we find indications that the shadowing effect increases with energy during times of high solar activity, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

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MLA
Aartsen, M. G., et al. “Measurements of the Time-Dependent Cosmic-Ray Sun Shadow with Seven Years of IceCube Data : Comparison with the Solar Cycle and Magnetic Field Models.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 103, no. 4, 2021, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.042005.
APA
Aartsen, M. G., Abbasi, R., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., … Zoecklein, M. (2021). Measurements of the time-dependent cosmic-ray Sun shadow with seven years of IceCube data : comparison with the solar cycle and magnetic field models. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 103(4). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.103.042005
Chicago author-date
Aartsen, M. G., R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, et al. 2021. “Measurements of the Time-Dependent Cosmic-Ray Sun Shadow with Seven Years of IceCube Data : Comparison with the Solar Cycle and Magnetic Field Models.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 103 (4). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.103.042005.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aartsen, M. G., R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, V Balagopal, A., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V Basu, V Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K-H Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Boeser, O. Botner, J. Boettcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Diaz-Velez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, H. Fichtner, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, T. Glauch, T. Gluesenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Gregoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Guender, M. Guenduez, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Huennefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, J. Kleimann, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Kopke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Kruckl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, J. Lunemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, H. Pandya, V Pankova, D., N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Perez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, Alessio Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schroeder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuerwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tonnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, Stef Verpoest, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and M. Zoecklein. 2021. “Measurements of the Time-Dependent Cosmic-Ray Sun Shadow with Seven Years of IceCube Data : Comparison with the Solar Cycle and Magnetic Field Models.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 103 (4). doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.042005.
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen MG, Abbasi R, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, et al. Measurements of the time-dependent cosmic-ray Sun shadow with seven years of IceCube data : comparison with the solar cycle and magnetic field models. PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 2021;103(4).
IEEE
[1]
M. G. Aartsen et al., “Measurements of the time-dependent cosmic-ray Sun shadow with seven years of IceCube data : comparison with the solar cycle and magnetic field models,” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 103, no. 4, 2021.
@article{8705939,
  abstract     = {{Observations of the time-dependent cosmic-ray Sun shadow have been proven as a valuable diagnostic for the assessment of solar magnetic field models. In this paper, seven years of IceCube data are compared to solar activity and solar magnetic field models. A quantitative comparison of solar magnetic field models with IceCube data on the event rate level is performed for the first time. Additionally, a first energy-dependent analysis is presented and compared to recent predictions. We use seven years of IceCube data for the moon and the Sun and compare them to simulations on data rate level. The simulations are performed for the geometrical shadow hypothesis for the moon and the Sun and for a cosmic-ray propagation model governed by the solar magnetic field for the case of the Sun. We find that a linearly decreasing relationship between Sun shadow strength and solar activity is preferred over a constant relationship at the 6.4 sigma level. We test two commonly used models of the coronal magnetic field, both combined with a Parker spiral, by modeling cosmic-ray propagation in the solar magnetic field. Both models predict a weakening of the shadow in times of high solar activity as it is also visible in the data. We find tensions with the data on the order of 3 sigma for both models, assuming only statistical uncertainties. The magnetic field model CSSS fits the data slightly better than the PFSS model. This is generally consistent with what is found previously by the Tibet AS-gamma Experiment; a deviation of the data from the two models is, however, not significant at this point. Regarding the energy dependence of the Sun shadow, we find indications that the shadowing effect increases with energy during times of high solar activity, in agreement with theoretical predictions.}},
  articleno    = {{042005}},
  author       = {{Aartsen, M. G. and Abbasi, R. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Amin, N. M. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Balagopal, A., V and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Bastian, B. and Basu, V and Baum, V and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K-H and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Boeser, S. and Botner, O. and Boettcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Buscher, J. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Choi, S. and Clark, B. A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coleman, A. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desai, A. and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Dharani, S. and Diaz, A. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and DuVernois, M. A. and Dvorak, E. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Engel, R. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Fichtner, H. and Fienberg, A. T. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Fox, D. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghadimi, A. and Glauch, T. and Gluesenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Goswami, S. and Grant, D. and Gregoire, T. and Griffith, Z. and Griswold, S. and Guender, M. and Guenduez, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halliday, R. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hardin, J. and Haungs, A. and Hauser, S. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Heix, P. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, C. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Huber, T. and Hultqvist, K. and Huennefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jansson, M. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jonske, F. and Joppe, R. and Kang, D. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Kellermann, M. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kin, K. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Kleimann, J. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Kopke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Koundal, P. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kruckl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Li, Y. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Ludwig, A. and Lunemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Lyu, Y. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallik, P. and Mancina, S. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and McNally, F. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Merz, J. and Meures, T. and Micallef, J. and Mockler, D. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Muth, P. and Nagai, R. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nisa, M. U. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Oehler, M. and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D., V and Park, N. and Parker, G. K. and Paudel, E. N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Philippen, S. and Pieloth, D. and Pieper, S. and Pinat, E. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Popovych, Y. and Porcelli, Alessio and Rodriguez, M. Prado and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Rehman, A. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renschler, M. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Riedel, B. and Robertson, S. and Roellinghoff, G. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Cantu, D. Rysewyk and Safa, I and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Scharf, M. and Schaufel, M. and Schieler, H. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schroeder, F. G. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Shefali, S. and Silva, M. and Smithers, B. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Stuerwald, T. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Taboada, I and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Tollefson, K. and Tomankova, L. and Tonnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Trettin, A. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and van Eijk, D. and van Eijndhoven, N. and Vannerom, D. and van Santen, J. and Verpoest, Stef and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weindl, A. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Wulff, J. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T. and Zhang, Z. and Zoecklein, M.}},
  issn         = {{2470-0010}},
  journal      = {{PHYSICAL REVIEW D}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{18}},
  title        = {{Measurements of the time-dependent cosmic-ray Sun shadow with seven years of IceCube data : comparison with the solar cycle and magnetic field models}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.103.042005}},
  volume       = {{103}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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