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A search for time-dependent astrophysical neutrino emission with IceCube data from 2012 to 2017

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Abstract
High-energy neutrinos are unique messengers of the high-energy universe, tracing the processes of cosmic ray acceleration. This paper presents analyses focusing on time-dependent neutrino point-source searches. A scan of the whole sky, making no prior assumption about source candidates, is performed, looking for a space and time clustering of high-energy neutrinos in data collected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory between 2012 and 2017. No statistically significant evidence for a time-dependent neutrino signal is found with this search during this period, as all results are consistent with the background expectation. Within this study period, the blazar 3C 279, showed strong variability, inducing a very prominent gamma-ray flare observed in 2015 June. This event motivated a dedicated study of the blazar, which consists of searching for a time-dependent neutrino signal correlated with the gamma-ray emission. No evidence for a time-dependent signal is found. Hence, an upper limit on the neutrino fluence is derived, allowing us to constrain a hadronic emission model.
Keywords
Particle astrophysics, High-energy astrophysics, Cosmic ray sources

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MLA
Abbasi, R., et al. “A Search for Time-Dependent Astrophysical Neutrino Emission with IceCube Data from 2012 to 2017.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 911, no. 1, 2021, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abe7e6.
APA
Abbasi, R., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., … Zhang, Z. (2021). A search for time-dependent astrophysical neutrino emission with IceCube data from 2012 to 2017. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 911(1). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abe7e6
Chicago author-date
Abbasi, R., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, et al. 2021. “A Search for Time-Dependent Astrophysical Neutrino Emission with IceCube Data from 2012 to 2017.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 911 (1). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abe7e6.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Abbasi, R., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, S. Axani, X. Bai, V. A. Balagopal, A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, S. Boser, O. Botner, J. Bottcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, C. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Diaz-Velez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Furst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glusenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Gregoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Gunduz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hunnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Kopke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Kruckl, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczynska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, I. C. Maris, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, F. McNally, K. Meagher, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, E. O’Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Perez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, Alessio Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schroder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tonnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, J. Vandenbroucke, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, Stef Verpoest, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, and Z. Zhang. 2021. “A Search for Time-Dependent Astrophysical Neutrino Emission with IceCube Data from 2012 to 2017.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 911 (1). doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abe7e6.
Vancouver
1.
Abbasi R, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. A search for time-dependent astrophysical neutrino emission with IceCube data from 2012 to 2017. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2021;911(1).
IEEE
[1]
R. Abbasi et al., “A search for time-dependent astrophysical neutrino emission with IceCube data from 2012 to 2017,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 911, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8705936,
  abstract     = {{High-energy neutrinos are unique messengers of the high-energy universe, tracing the processes of cosmic ray acceleration. This paper presents analyses focusing on time-dependent neutrino point-source searches. A scan of the whole sky, making no prior assumption about source candidates, is performed, looking for a space and time clustering of high-energy neutrinos in data collected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory between 2012 and 2017. No statistically significant evidence for a time-dependent neutrino signal is found with this search during this period, as all results are consistent with the background expectation. Within this study period, the blazar 3C 279, showed strong variability, inducing a very prominent gamma-ray flare observed in 2015 June. This event motivated a dedicated study of the blazar, which consists of searching for a time-dependent neutrino signal correlated with the gamma-ray emission. No evidence for a time-dependent signal is found. Hence, an upper limit on the neutrino fluence is derived, allowing us to constrain a hadronic emission model.}},
  articleno    = {{67}},
  author       = {{Abbasi, R. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Alves, A. A. and Amin, N. M. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Axani, S. and Bai, X. and Balagopal, V. A. and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Bastian, B. and Basu, V. and Baum, V. and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. -H. and Tjus, J. Becker and Bellenghi, C. and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Boser, S. and Botner, O. and Bottcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Busse, R. S. and Campana, M. A. and Chen, C. and Chirkin, D. and Choi, S. and Clark, B. A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coleman, A. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and Clercq, C. De and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desai, A. and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Dharani, S. and Diaz, A. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and DuVernois, M. A. and Dvorak, E. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Engel, R. and Evans, J. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Fiedlschuster, S. and Fienberg, A. T. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Fischer, L. and Fox, D. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Furst, P. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghadimi, A. and Glaser, C. and Glauch, T. and Glusenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Goswami, S. and Grant, D. and Gregoire, T. and Griffith, Z. and Griswold, S. and Gunduz, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halliday, R. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Minh, M. Ha and Hanson, K. and Hardin, J. and Harnisch, A. A. and Haungs, A. and Hauser, S. and Hebecker, D. and Helbing, K. and Henningsen, F. and Hettinger, E. C. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, C. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Huber, T. and Hultqvist, K. and Hunnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jansson, M. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jones, B. J. P. and Joppe, R. and Kang, D. and Kang, W. and Kang, X. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Kellermann, M. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kin, K. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Kopke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Koundal, P. and Kovacevich, M. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kruckl, G. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Gualda, C. Lagunas and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Leszczynska, A. and Li, Y. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Ludwig, A. and Luszczak, W. and Lyu, Y. and Ma, W. Y. and Madsen, J. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallik, P. and Mancina, S. and Maris, I. C. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and McNally, F. and Meagher, K. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Merz, J. and Micallef, J. and Mockler, D. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Naab, R. and Nagai, R. and Naumann, U. and Necker, J. and Nguyen, L. V. and Niederhausen, H. and Nisa, M. U. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Oehler, M. and Olivas, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D. V. and Park, N. and Parker, G. K. and Paudel, E. N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Philippen, S. and Pieloth, D. and Pieper, S. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Popovych, Y. and Porcelli, Alessio and Rodriguez, M. Prado and Price, P. B. and Pries, B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Rehman, A. and Reimann, R. and Renschler, M. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Reusch, S. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Riedel, B. and Robertson, S. and Roellinghoff, G. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Cantu, D. Rysewyk and Safa, I. and Sanchez Herrera, S. E. and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Scharf, M. and Schaufel, M. and Schieler, H. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schroder, F. G. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Shefali, S. and Silva, M. and Smithers, B. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Taboada, I. and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Tilav, S. and Tischbein, F. and Tollefson, K. and Tomankova, L. and Tonnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Trettin, A. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Twagirayezu, J. P. and Ty, B. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Vandenbroucke, J. and Eijk, D. van and Eijndhoven, N. van and Vannerom, D. and Santen, J. van and Verpoest, Stef and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weindl, A. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Weyrauch, M. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Williams, D. R. and Wolf, M. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Wulff, J. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T. and Zhang, Z.}},
  issn         = {{0004-637X}},
  journal      = {{ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL}},
  keywords     = {{Particle astrophysics,High-energy astrophysics,Cosmic ray sources}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{A search for time-dependent astrophysical neutrino emission with IceCube data from 2012 to 2017}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abe7e6}},
  volume       = {{911}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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