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Combined sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering with JUNO, the IceCube Upgrade, and PINGU

(2020) PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 101(3).
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Abstract
The ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates is one of the fundamental open questions in neutrino physics. While current-generation neutrino oscillation experiments are able to produce moderate indications on this ordering, upcoming experiments of the next generation aim to provide conclusive evidence. In this paper we study the combined performance of the two future multi-purpose neutrino oscillation experiments JUNO and the IceCube Upgrade, which employ two very distinct and complementary routes toward the neutrino mass ordering. The approach pursued by the 20 kt medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment JUNO consists of a careful investigation of the energy spectrum of oscillated (nu) over bar (e) produced by ten nuclear reactor cores. The IceCube Upgrade, on the other hand, which consists of seven additional densely instrumented strings deployed in the center of IceCube DeepCore, will observe large numbers of atmospheric neutrinos that have undergone oscillations affected by Earth matter. In a joint fit with both approaches, tension occurs between their preferred mass-squared differences Delta m(31)(2) = m(3)(2) - m(1)(2) in within the wrong mass ordering. In the case of JUNO and the IceCube Upgrade, this allows to exclude the wrong ordering at > 5 sigma on a timescale of 3-7 years-even under circumstances that are unfavorable to the experiments individual sensitivities. For PINGU, a 26-string detector array designed as a potential low-energy extension to IceCube, the inverted ordering could be excluded within 1.5 years (3 years for the normal ordering) in a joint analysis.
Keywords
OSCILLATIONS, MATTER

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MLA
Aartsen, M. G., et al. “Combined Sensitivity to the Neutrino Mass Ordering with JUNO, the IceCube Upgrade, and PINGU.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 101, no. 3, 2020, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.101.032006.
APA
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., … Cabrera, A. (2020). Combined sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering with JUNO, the IceCube Upgrade, and PINGU. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 101(3). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.101.032006
Chicago author-date
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, et al. 2020. “Combined Sensitivity to the Neutrino Mass Ordering with JUNO, the IceCube Upgrade, and PINGU.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 101 (3). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.101.032006.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, T. C. Arlen, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, P. Backes, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal, A. Barbano, I Bartos, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, M. Bohmer, S. Boeser, O. Botner, J. Boettcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Diaz-Velez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, J. J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, A. Gartner, L. Gerhardt, R. Gernhaeuser, K. Ghorbani, T. Glauch, T. Gluesenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Guender, M. Guenduez, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, J. Haugen, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, B. Hoffmann, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Holzapfel, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, T. Huege, K. Hultqvist, M. Huennefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, O. Kalekin, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, T. Katori, U. Katz, M. Kauer, A. Keivani, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Koepke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, C. B. Krauss, K. Krings, G. Krueckl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczynska, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, J. LoSecco, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, J. Luenemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, K. Mallot, S. Mancina, S. Mandalia, I. C. Maris, S. Marka, Z. Marka, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, G. Merino, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, V Pankova, D., L. Papp, N. Park, P. Peiffer, C. Perez de los Heros, T. C. Petersen, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, E. Pinat, J. L. Pinfold, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Alessio Porcelli, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, M. Riegel, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, P. Sandstrom, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schroeder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, M. H. Shaevitz, S. Shefali, M. Silva, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, S. Soeldner-Rembold, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stoessl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuerwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I Taboada, A. Taketa, H. K. M. Tanaka, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Toennis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, J. van Santen, D. Veberic, Stef Verpoest, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, S. Wren, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, M. Zoecklein, T. Birkenfeld, D. Blum, M. Bongrand, W. Depnering, O. Doetterl, T. Enqvist, H. Enzmann, C. Genster, M. Grassi, P. Hackspacher, C. Hagner, Y. Han, T. Heinz, P. Kampmann, P. Kuusiniemi, T. Lachenmaier, K. Loo, S. Lorenz, B. Lubsandorzhiev, L. Ludhova, Y. Malyshkin, D. Meyhoefer, L. Miramonti, A. Mueller, O. Pilarczyk, H. Rebber, J. Sawatzki, M. Schever, K. Schweizer, M. Settimo, C. Sirignano, M. Smirnov, A. Stahl, J. Steinmann, T. Sterr, A. Studenikin, A. Tietzsch, B. Viaud, C. Volpe, W. Wang, M. Wurm, C. Wysotzki, X. Ding, F. Yermia, Y. P. Cheng, and A. Cabrera. 2020. “Combined Sensitivity to the Neutrino Mass Ordering with JUNO, the IceCube Upgrade, and PINGU.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 101 (3). doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.101.032006.
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen MG, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. Combined sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering with JUNO, the IceCube Upgrade, and PINGU. PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 2020;101(3).
IEEE
[1]
M. G. Aartsen et al., “Combined sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering with JUNO, the IceCube Upgrade, and PINGU,” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 101, no. 3, 2020.
@article{8705931,
  abstract     = {{The ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates is one of the fundamental open questions in neutrino physics. While current-generation neutrino oscillation experiments are able to produce moderate indications on this ordering, upcoming experiments of the next generation aim to provide conclusive evidence. In this paper we study the combined performance of the two future multi-purpose neutrino oscillation experiments JUNO and the IceCube Upgrade, which employ two very distinct and complementary routes toward the neutrino mass ordering. The approach pursued by the 20 kt medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment JUNO consists of a careful investigation of the energy spectrum of oscillated (nu) over bar (e) produced by ten nuclear reactor cores. The IceCube Upgrade, on the other hand, which consists of seven additional densely instrumented strings deployed in the center of IceCube DeepCore, will observe large numbers of atmospheric neutrinos that have undergone oscillations affected by Earth matter. In a joint fit with both approaches, tension occurs between their preferred mass-squared differences Delta m(31)(2) = m(3)(2) - m(1)(2) in within the wrong mass ordering. In the case of JUNO and the IceCube Upgrade, this allows to exclude the wrong ordering at > 5 sigma on a timescale of 3-7 years-even under circumstances that are unfavorable to the experiments individual sensitivities. For PINGU, a 26-string detector array designed as a potential low-energy extension to IceCube, the inverted ordering could be excluded within 1.5 years (3 years for the normal ordering) in a joint analysis.}},
  articleno    = {{032006}},
  author       = {{Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Arlen, T. C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Backes, P. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Balagopal, A. and Barbano, A. and Bartos, I and Barwick, S. W. and Bastian, B. and Baum, V and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. H. and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Bohmer, M. and Boeser, S. and Botner, O. and Boettcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Buscher, J. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Choi, S. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coleman, A. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Diaz, A. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and DuVernois, M. A. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Engel, R. and Evans, J. J. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Farrag, K. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Fox, D. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gartner, A. and Gerhardt, L. and Gernhaeuser, R. and Ghorbani, K. and Glauch, T. and Gluesenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Griswold, S. and Guender, M. and Guenduez, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halliday, R. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Haugen, J. and Haungs, A. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Heix, P. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, B. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Holzapfel, K. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Huber, T. and Huege, T. and Hultqvist, K. and Huennefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jonske, F. and Joppe, R. and Kalekin, O. and Kang, D. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katori, T. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Koepke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krauss, C. B. and Krings, K. and Krueckl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Leszczynska, A. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and LoSecco, J. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Luenemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Lyu, Y. and Ma, W. Y. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallik, P. and Mallot, K. and Mancina, S. and Mandalia, S. and Maris, I. C. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and McNally, F. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Micallef, J. and Mockler, D. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Muth, P. and Nagai, R. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nisa, M. U. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Oehler, M. and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D., V and Papp, L. and Park, N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Petersen, T. C. and Philippen, S. and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Pinfold, J. L. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Porcelli, Alessio and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renschler, M. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Riegel, M. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D. and Safa, I and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Sandstrom, P. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schaufel, M. and Schieler, H. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schroeder, F. G. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Shaevitz, M. H. and Shefali, S. and Silva, M. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Soeldner-Rembold, S. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stoessl, A. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Stuerwald, T. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Taboada, I and Taketa, A. and Tanaka, H. K. M. and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Tollefson, K. and Tomankova, L. and Toennis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Trettin, A. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and van Eijk, D. and van Eijndhoven, N. and van Santen, J. and Veberic, D. and Verpoest, Stef and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandkowsky, N. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weindl, A. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Wren, S. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T. and Zoecklein, M. and Birkenfeld, T. and Blum, D. and Bongrand, M. and Depnering, W. and Doetterl, O. and Enqvist, T. and Enzmann, H. and Genster, C. and Grassi, M. and Hackspacher, P. and Hagner, C. and Han, Y. and Heinz, T. and Kampmann, P. and Kuusiniemi, P. and Lachenmaier, T. and Loo, K. and Lorenz, S. and Lubsandorzhiev, B. and Ludhova, L. and Malyshkin, Y. and Meyhoefer, D. and Miramonti, L. and Mueller, A. and Pilarczyk, O. and Rebber, H. and Sawatzki, J. and Schever, M. and Schweizer, K. and Settimo, M. and Sirignano, C. and Smirnov, M. and Stahl, A. and Steinmann, J. and Sterr, T. and Studenikin, A. and Tietzsch, A. and Viaud, B. and Volpe, C. and Wang, W. and Wurm, M. and Wysotzki, C. and Ding, X. and Yermia, F. and Cheng, Y. P. and Cabrera, A.}},
  issn         = {{1550-7998}},
  journal      = {{PHYSICAL REVIEW D}},
  keywords     = {{OSCILLATIONS,MATTER}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{19}},
  title        = {{Combined sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering with JUNO, the IceCube Upgrade, and PINGU}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.101.032006}},
  volume       = {{101}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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