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Abstract
The current and upcoming generation of Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes - collecting unprecedented quantities of neutrino events - can be used to explore subtle effects in oscillation physics, such as (but not restricted to) the neutrino mass ordering. The sensitivity of an experiment to these effects can be estimated from Monte Carlo simulations. With the high number of events that will be collected, there is a trade-off between the computational expense of running such simulations and the inherent statistical uncertainty in the determined values. In such a scenario, it becomes impractical to produce and use adequately-sized sets of simulated events with traditional methods, such as Monte Carlo weighting. In this work we present a staged approach to the generation of expected distributions of observables in order to overcome these challenges. By combining multiple integration and smoothing techniques which address limited statistics from simulation it arrives at reliable analysis results using modest computational resources.
Keywords
MATTER, Data analysis, Monte Carlo, MC, Statistics, Smoothing, KDE, Neutrino, Neutrino mass ordering, Detector, FVLV nu T

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MLA
Aartsen, M. G., et al. “Computational Techniques for the Analysis of Small Signals in High-Statistics Neutrino Oscillation Experiments.” NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, vol. 977, Elsevier, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2020.164332.
APA
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., … Zoecklein, M. (2020). Computational techniques for the analysis of small signals in high-statistics neutrino oscillation experiments. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, 977. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2020.164332
Chicago author-date
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, et al. 2020. “Computational Techniques for the Analysis of Small Signals in High-Statistics Neutrino Oscillation Experiments.” NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT 977. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2020.164332.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, T. C. Arlen, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, P. Backes, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal, A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K-H Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, M. Borner, S. Boser, O. Botner, J. Bottcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. DeVries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Diaz-Velez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, J. J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, T. Glauch, T. Glusenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Guender, M. Guenduez, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Huennefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, T. Katori, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Koepke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krueckl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczynska, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, J. Luenemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, K. Mallot, S. Mancina, S. Mandalia, I. C. Maris, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, T. Menne, G. Merino, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, V Pankova, D., N. Park, P. Peiffer, C. Perez de los Hero, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Alessio Porcelli, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schroder, L. Schulte, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, S. Soldner-Rembold, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, P. Steinmueller, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stossl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuerwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tonnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, J. van Santen, Stef Verpoest, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, S. Wren, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, and M. Zoecklein. 2020. “Computational Techniques for the Analysis of Small Signals in High-Statistics Neutrino Oscillation Experiments.” NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT 977. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2020.164332.
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen MG, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. Computational techniques for the analysis of small signals in high-statistics neutrino oscillation experiments. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT. 2020;977.
IEEE
[1]
M. G. Aartsen et al., “Computational techniques for the analysis of small signals in high-statistics neutrino oscillation experiments,” NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, vol. 977, 2020.
@article{8705917,
  abstract     = {{The current and upcoming generation of Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes - collecting unprecedented quantities of neutrino events - can be used to explore subtle effects in oscillation physics, such as (but not restricted to) the neutrino mass ordering. The sensitivity of an experiment to these effects can be estimated from Monte Carlo simulations. With the high number of events that will be collected, there is a trade-off between the computational expense of running such simulations and the inherent statistical uncertainty in the determined values. In such a scenario, it becomes impractical to produce and use adequately-sized sets of simulated events with traditional methods, such as Monte Carlo weighting. In this work we present a staged approach to the generation of expected distributions of observables in order to overcome these challenges. By combining multiple integration and smoothing techniques which address limited statistics from simulation it arrives at reliable analysis results using modest computational resources.}},
  articleno    = {{164332}},
  author       = {{Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Arlen, T. C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Backes, P. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Balagopal, A. and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Bastian, B. and Baum, V and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K-H and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Borner, M. and Boser, S. and Botner, O. and Bottcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Buscher, J. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Choi, S. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coleman, A. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P. and DeVries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Diaz, A. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Engel, R. and Evans, J. J. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Fox, D. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Glauch, T. and Glusenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Griswold, S. and Guender, M. and Guenduez, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halliday, R. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Haungs, A. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Heix, P. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Huber, T. and Hultqvist, K. and Huennefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jonske, F. and Joppe, R. and Kang, D. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katori, T. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Koepke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Krueckl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Leszczynska, A. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Luenemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Lyu, Y. and Ma, W. Y. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallik, P. and Mallot, K. and Mancina, S. and Mandalia, S. and Maris, I. C. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and McNally, F. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Micallef, J. and Mockler, D. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Muth, P. and Nagai, R. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nisa, M. U. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Oehler, M. and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D., V and Park, N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Hero, C. Perez and Philippen, S. and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Porcelli, Alessio and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renschler, M. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D. and Safa, I and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schaufel, M. and Schieler, H. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schroder, F. G. and Schulte, L. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Shefali, S. and Silva, M. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Soldner-Rembold, S. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stein, R. and Steinmueller, P. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stossl, A. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Stuerwald, T. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Taboada, I and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Tollefson, K. and Tomankova, L. and Tonnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Trettin, A. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and van Eijk, D. and van Eijndhoven, N. and van Santen, J. and Verpoest, Stef and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandkowsky, N. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weindl, A. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Wren, S. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T. and Zoecklein, M.}},
  issn         = {{0168-9002}},
  journal      = {{NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT}},
  keywords     = {{MATTER,Data analysis,Monte Carlo,MC,Statistics,Smoothing,KDE,Neutrino,Neutrino mass ordering,Detector,FVLV nu T}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{19}},
  publisher    = {{Elsevier}},
  title        = {{Computational techniques for the analysis of small signals in high-statistics neutrino oscillation experiments}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2020.164332}},
  volume       = {{977}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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