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Cosmic ray spectrum from 250 TeV to 10 PeV using IceTop

(2020) PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 102(12).
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Abstract
We report here an extension of the measurement of the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum with IceTop to lower energy. The new measurement gives full coverage of the knee region of the spectrum and reduces the gap in energy between previous IceTop and direct measurements. With a new trigger that selects events in closely spaced detectors in the center of the array, the IceTop energy threshold is lowered by almost an order of magnitude below its previous threshold of 2 PeV. In this paper we explain how the new trigger is implemented, and we describe the new machine-learning method developed to deal with events with very few detectors hit. We compare the results with previous measurements by IceTop and others that overlap at higher energy and with HAWC and Tibet in the 100 TeV range.

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MLA
Aartsen, M. G., et al. “Cosmic Ray Spectrum from 250 TeV to 10 PeV Using IceTop.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 102, no. 12, 2020, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.122001.
APA
Aartsen, M. G., Abbasi, R., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., … Zocklein, M. (2020). Cosmic ray spectrum from 250 TeV to 10 PeV using IceTop. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 102(12). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.102.122001
Chicago author-date
Aartsen, M. G., R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, et al. 2020. “Cosmic Ray Spectrum from 250 TeV to 10 PeV Using IceTop.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 102 (12). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.102.122001.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aartsen, M. G., R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V, A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K-H Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Boser, O. Botner, J. Bottcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Diaz-Velez, H. Dujmovic, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, T. Glauch, T. Glusenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, T. Gregoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Gunder, M. Gunduz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hunnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Kopke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Kruckl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, J. Lunemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, P. Mallik, K. Mallot, S. Mancina, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, G. Merino, J. Merz, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, H. Pandya, V Pankova, D., N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Perez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, Alessio Porcelli, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schroder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Sturwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tonnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, Stef Verpoest, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and M. Zocklein. 2020. “Cosmic Ray Spectrum from 250 TeV to 10 PeV Using IceTop.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 102 (12). doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.122001.
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen MG, Abbasi R, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, et al. Cosmic ray spectrum from 250 TeV to 10 PeV using IceTop. PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 2020;102(12).
IEEE
[1]
M. G. Aartsen et al., “Cosmic ray spectrum from 250 TeV to 10 PeV using IceTop,” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 102, no. 12, 2020.
@article{8705864,
  abstract     = {{We report here an extension of the measurement of the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum with IceTop to lower energy. The new measurement gives full coverage of the knee region of the spectrum and reduces the gap in energy between previous IceTop and direct measurements. With a new trigger that selects events in closely spaced detectors in the center of the array, the IceTop energy threshold is lowered by almost an order of magnitude below its previous threshold of 2 PeV. In this paper we explain how the new trigger is implemented, and we describe the new machine-learning method developed to deal with events with very few detectors hit. We compare the results with previous measurements by IceTop and others that overlap at higher energy and with HAWC and Tibet in the 100 TeV range.}},
  articleno    = {{122001}},
  author       = {{Aartsen, M. G. and Abbasi, R. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Amin, N. M. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Balagopal V, A. and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Bastian, B. and Baum, V and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K-H and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Boser, S. and Botner, O. and Bottcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Buscher, J. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Choi, S. and Clark, B. A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coleman, A. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Dharani, S. and Diaz, A. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Engel, R. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Fienberg, A. T. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Fox, D. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Glauch, T. and Glusenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Gregoire, T. and Griffith, Z. and Griswold, S. and Gunder, M. and Gunduz, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halliday, R. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Haungs, A. and Hauser, S. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Heix, P. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, C. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huber, M. and Huber, T. and Hultqvist, K. and Hunnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jansson, M. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jonske, F. and Joppe, R. and Kang, D. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Kellermann, M. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Kopke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Koundal, P. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kruckl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Li, Y. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Ludwig, A. and Lunemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Lyu, Y. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Mallik, P. and Mallot, K. and Mancina, S. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and McNally, F. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Merino, G. and Merz, J. and Meures, T. and Micallef, J. and Mockler, D. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Muth, P. and Nagai, R. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nisa, M. U. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Oehler, M. and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D., V and Park, N. and Parker, G. K. and Paudel, E. N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Philippen, S. and Pieloth, D. and Pieper, S. and Pinat, E. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Popovych, Y. and Porcelli, Alessio and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Rehman, A. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renschler, M. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Cantu, D. Rysewyk and Safa, I and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Scharf, M. and Schaufel, M. and Schieler, H. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schroder, F. G. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Shefali, S. and Silva, M. and Smithers, B. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Sturwald, T. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Taboada, I and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Tollefson, K. and Tomankova, L. and Tonnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Trettin, A. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and van Eijk, D. and van Eijndhoven, N. and Vannerom, D. and van Santen, J. and Verpoest, Stef and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandkowsky, N. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weindl, A. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Wulff, J. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T. and Zhang, Z. and Zocklein, M.}},
  issn         = {{2470-0010}},
  journal      = {{PHYSICAL REVIEW D}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{18}},
  title        = {{Cosmic ray spectrum from 250 TeV to 10 PeV using IceTop}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.102.122001}},
  volume       = {{102}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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