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Repeat induced abortion among Chinese women seeking abortion : two cross sectional studies

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Abstract
Background: In China, there were about 9.76 million induced abortions in 2019, 50% of which were repeat abortions. Understanding the tendency of repeat induced abortion and identifying its related factors is needed to develop prevention strategies. Methods: Two hospital-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted from 2005–2007 and 2013–2016 in 24 and 90 hospitals, respectively. The survey included women who sought an induced abortion within 12 weeks of pregnancy. The proportion of repeat induced abortions by adjusting the covariates through propensity score matching was compared between the two surveys, and the zero-inflated negative binomial regression model was established to identify independent factors of repeat induced abortion. Results: Adjusting the age, occupation, education, marital status and number of children, the proportion of repeat induced abortions in the second survey was found to be low (60.28% vs. 11.11%), however the unadjusted proportion was high in the second survey (44.97% vs. 51.54%). The risk of repeat induced abortion was higher among married women and women with children [ORadj and 95% CI: 0.31 (0.20, 0.49) and 0.08 (0.05, 0.13)]; the risk among service industry staff was higher when compared with unemployed women [ORadj and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.07, 0.54)]; women with a lower education level were at a higher risk of a repeat induced abortion (ORadj < 1). Compared with women under the age of 20, women in other higher age groups had a higher frequency of repeat induced abortions (IRadj: 1.78, 2.55, 3.27, 4.01, and 3.93, separately); the frequency of women with lower education levels was higher than those with a university or higher education level (IRadj > 1); the repeat induced abortion frequency of married women was 0.93 (0.90, 0.98) when compared to the frequency of unmarried women, while the frequency of women with children was 1.17 (1.10, 1.25) of childless women; the induced abortion frequency of working women was about 60–95% with that of unemployed women. Conclusions: The repeat induced abortion proportion was lower than 10 years ago. Induced abortion seekers who were married, aged 20 to 30 years and with a lower education level were more likely to repeat induced abortions.
Keywords
repeat induced abortion, family planning policy, Chinese women, cross-sectional study, REPRODUCTIVE AGE, RISK-FACTORS, CARE SERVICES, MARRIED-WOMEN, ETHIOPIA, DETERMINANTS, PREGNANCY, BEHAVIOR

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MLA
Tang, Longmei, et al. “Repeat Induced Abortion among Chinese Women Seeking Abortion : Two Cross Sectional Studies.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 18, no. 9, 2021, doi:10.3390/ ijerph18094446.
APA
Tang, L., Wu, S., Liu, D., Temmerman, M., & Zhang, W. H. (2021). Repeat induced abortion among Chinese women seeking abortion : two cross sectional studies. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 18(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph18094446
Chicago author-date
Tang, Longmei, Shangchun Wu, Dianwu Liu, Marleen Temmerman, and Wei Hong Zhang. 2021. “Repeat Induced Abortion among Chinese Women Seeking Abortion : Two Cross Sectional Studies.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 18 (9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph18094446.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Tang, Longmei, Shangchun Wu, Dianwu Liu, Marleen Temmerman, and Wei Hong Zhang. 2021. “Repeat Induced Abortion among Chinese Women Seeking Abortion : Two Cross Sectional Studies.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 18 (9). doi:10.3390/ ijerph18094446.
Vancouver
1.
Tang L, Wu S, Liu D, Temmerman M, Zhang WH. Repeat induced abortion among Chinese women seeking abortion : two cross sectional studies. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. 2021;18(9).
IEEE
[1]
L. Tang, S. Wu, D. Liu, M. Temmerman, and W. H. Zhang, “Repeat induced abortion among Chinese women seeking abortion : two cross sectional studies,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 18, no. 9, 2021.
@article{8705279,
  abstract     = {{Background: In China, there were about 9.76 million induced abortions in 2019, 50% of which were repeat abortions. Understanding the tendency of repeat induced abortion and identifying its related factors is needed to develop prevention strategies. Methods: Two hospital-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted from 2005–2007 and 2013–2016 in 24 and 90 hospitals, respectively. The survey included women who sought an induced abortion within 12 weeks of pregnancy. The proportion of repeat induced abortions by adjusting the covariates through propensity score matching was compared between the two surveys, and the zero-inflated negative binomial regression model was established to identify independent factors of repeat induced abortion. Results: Adjusting the age, occupation, education, marital status and number of children, the proportion of repeat induced abortions in the second survey was found to be low (60.28% vs. 11.11%), however the unadjusted proportion was high in the second survey (44.97% vs. 51.54%). The risk of repeat induced abortion was higher among married women and women with children [ORadj and 95% CI: 0.31 (0.20, 0.49) and 0.08 (0.05, 0.13)]; the risk among service industry staff was higher when compared with unemployed women [ORadj and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.07, 0.54)]; women with a lower education level were at a higher risk of a repeat induced abortion (ORadj < 1). Compared with women under the age of 20, women in other higher age groups had a higher frequency of repeat induced abortions (IRadj: 1.78, 2.55, 3.27, 4.01, and 3.93, separately); the frequency of women with lower education levels was higher than those with a university or higher education level (IRadj > 1); the repeat induced abortion frequency of married women was 0.93 (0.90, 0.98) when compared to the frequency of unmarried women, while the frequency of women with children was 1.17 (1.10, 1.25) of childless women; the induced abortion frequency of working women was about 60–95% with that of unemployed women. Conclusions: The repeat induced abortion proportion was lower than 10 years ago. Induced abortion seekers who were married, aged 20 to 30 years and with a lower education level were more likely to repeat induced abortions.}},
  articleno    = {{4446}},
  author       = {{Tang, Longmei and Wu, Shangchun and Liu, Dianwu and Temmerman, Marleen and Zhang, Wei Hong}},
  issn         = {{1660-4601}},
  journal      = {{INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH}},
  keywords     = {{repeat induced abortion,family planning policy,Chinese women,cross-sectional study,REPRODUCTIVE AGE,RISK-FACTORS,CARE SERVICES,MARRIED-WOMEN,ETHIOPIA,DETERMINANTS,PREGNANCY,BEHAVIOR}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{9}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Repeat induced abortion among Chinese women seeking abortion : two cross sectional studies}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph18094446}},
  volume       = {{18}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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