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The role of occupants in buildings’ energy performance gap : myth or reality?

(2021) SUSTAINABILITY. 13(6).
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Abstract
Buildings’ expected (projected, simulated) energy use frequently does not match actual observations. This is commonly referred to as the energy performance gap. As such, many factors can contribute to the disagreement between expectations and observations. These include, for instance, uncertainty about buildings’ geometry, construction, systems, and weather conditions. However, the role of occupants in the energy performance gap has recently attracted much attention. It has even been suggested that occupants are the main cause of the energy performance gap. This, in turn, has led to suggestions that better models of occupant behavior can reduce the energy performance gap. The present effort aims at the review and evaluation of the evidence for such claims. To this end, a systematic literature search was conducted and relevant publications were identified and reviewed in detail. The review entailed the categorization of the studies according to the scope and strength of the evidence for occupants’ role in the energy performance gap. Moreover, deployed calculation and monitoring methods, normalization procedures, and reported causes and magnitudes of the energy performance gap were documented and evaluated. The results suggest that the role of occupants as significant or exclusive contributors to the energy performance gap is not sufficiently substantiated by evidence.
Keywords
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Geography, Planning and Development, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, buildings, performance gap, energy, occupant behavior, RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS, CONSUMPTION, IMPACT, DWELLINGS, FRAMEWORK, BEHAVIOR, SIMULATION, SAVINGS, SPACE, TEMPERATURE

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MLA
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, et al. “The Role of Occupants in Buildings’ Energy Performance Gap : Myth or Reality?” SUSTAINABILITY, vol. 13, no. 6, 2021, doi:10.3390/su13063146.
APA
Mahdavi, A., Berger, C., Amin, H., Ampatzi, E., Andersen, R. K., Azar, E., … Verbruggen, S. (2021). The role of occupants in buildings’ energy performance gap : myth or reality? SUSTAINABILITY, 13(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063146
Chicago author-date
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, Christiane Berger, Hadeer Amin, Eleni Ampatzi, Rune Korsholm Andersen, Elie Azar, Verena M. Barthelmes, et al. 2021. “The Role of Occupants in Buildings’ Energy Performance Gap : Myth or Reality?” SUSTAINABILITY 13 (6). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063146.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mahdavi, Ardeshir, Christiane Berger, Hadeer Amin, Eleni Ampatzi, Rune Korsholm Andersen, Elie Azar, Verena M. Barthelmes, Matteo Favero, Jakob Hahn, Dolaana Khovalyg, Henrik N. Knudsen, Alessandra Luna-Navarro, Astrid Roetzel, Fisayo C. Sangogboye, Marcel Schweiker, Mahnameh Taheri, Despoina Teli, Marianne Touchie, and Silke Verbruggen. 2021. “The Role of Occupants in Buildings’ Energy Performance Gap : Myth or Reality?” SUSTAINABILITY 13 (6). doi:10.3390/su13063146.
Vancouver
1.
Mahdavi A, Berger C, Amin H, Ampatzi E, Andersen RK, Azar E, et al. The role of occupants in buildings’ energy performance gap : myth or reality? SUSTAINABILITY. 2021;13(6).
IEEE
[1]
A. Mahdavi et al., “The role of occupants in buildings’ energy performance gap : myth or reality?,” SUSTAINABILITY, vol. 13, no. 6, 2021.
@article{8705107,
  abstract     = {{Buildings’ expected (projected, simulated) energy use frequently does not match actual observations. This is commonly referred to as the energy performance gap. As such, many factors can contribute to the disagreement between expectations and observations. These include, for instance, uncertainty about buildings’ geometry, construction, systems, and weather conditions. However, the role of occupants in the energy performance gap has recently attracted much attention. It has even been suggested that occupants are the main cause of the energy performance gap. This, in turn, has led to suggestions that better models of occupant behavior can reduce the energy performance gap. The present effort aims at the review and evaluation of the evidence for such claims. To this end, a systematic literature search was conducted and relevant publications were identified and reviewed in detail. The review entailed the categorization of the studies according to the scope and strength of the evidence for occupants’ role in the energy performance gap. Moreover, deployed calculation and monitoring methods, normalization procedures, and reported causes and magnitudes of the energy performance gap were documented and evaluated. The results suggest that the role of occupants as significant or exclusive contributors to the energy performance gap is not sufficiently substantiated by evidence.}},
  articleno    = {{3146}},
  author       = {{Mahdavi, Ardeshir and Berger, Christiane and Amin, Hadeer and Ampatzi, Eleni and Andersen, Rune Korsholm and Azar, Elie and Barthelmes, Verena M. and Favero, Matteo and Hahn, Jakob and Khovalyg, Dolaana and Knudsen, Henrik N. and Luna-Navarro, Alessandra and Roetzel, Astrid and Sangogboye, Fisayo C. and Schweiker, Marcel and Taheri, Mahnameh and Teli, Despoina and Touchie, Marianne and Verbruggen, Silke}},
  issn         = {{2071-1050}},
  journal      = {{SUSTAINABILITY}},
  keywords     = {{Renewable Energy,Sustainability and the Environment,Geography,Planning and Development,Management,Monitoring,Policy and Law,buildings,performance gap,energy,occupant behavior,RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS,CONSUMPTION,IMPACT,DWELLINGS,FRAMEWORK,BEHAVIOR,SIMULATION,SAVINGS,SPACE,TEMPERATURE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6}},
  pages        = {{44}},
  title        = {{The role of occupants in buildings’ energy performance gap : myth or reality?}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13063146}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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