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Phycotoxin-enriched sea spray aerosols : methods, mechanisms, and human exposure

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Abstract
To date, few studies have examined the role of sea spray aerosols (SSAs) in human exposure to harmful and beneficial marine compounds. Two groups of phycotoxins (brevetoxins and ovatoxins) have been reported to induce respiratory syndromes during harmful algal blooms. The aerosolization and coastal air concentrations of other common marine phycotoxins have, however, never been examined. This study provides the first (experimental) evidence and characterization of the aerosolization of okadaic acid (OA), homoyessotoxin, and dinophysistoxin-1 using seawater spiked with toxic algae combined with the realistic SSA production in a marine aerosol reference tank (MART). The potential for aerosolization of these phycotoxins was highlighted by their 78- to 1769-fold enrichment in SSAs relative to the subsurface water. To obtain and support these results, we first developed an analytical method for the determination of phycotoxin concentrations in SSAs, which showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99), recovery (85.3–101.8%), and precision (RSDs ≤ 17.2%). We also investigated natural phycotoxin air concentrations by means of in situ SSA sampling with concurrent aerosolization experiments using natural seawater in the MART. This approach allowed us to indirectly quantify the (harmless) magnitude of OA concentrations (0.6–51 pg m–3) in Belgium’s coastal air. Overall, this study provides new insights into the enriched aerosolization of marine compounds and proposes a framework to assess their airborne exposure and effects on human health.
Keywords
Harmful algal blooms, Airborne exposure, Human health, Sea surface microlayer, Okadaic acid, Homoyessotoxin, Dinophysistoxin-1, Analytical method validation, UHPLC-HRMS.

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MLA
Van Acker, Emmanuel, et al. “Phycotoxin-Enriched Sea Spray Aerosols : Methods, Mechanisms, and Human Exposure.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 55, no. 9, 2021, pp. 6184–96, doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c00995.
APA
Van Acker, E., Huysman, S., De Rijcke, M., Asselman, J., De Schamphelaere, K., Vanhaecke, L., & Janssen, C. (2021). Phycotoxin-enriched sea spray aerosols : methods, mechanisms, and human exposure. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 55(9), 6184–6196. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00995
Chicago author-date
Van Acker, Emmanuel, Steve Huysman, Maarten De Rijcke, Jana Asselman, Karel De Schamphelaere, Lynn Vanhaecke, and Colin Janssen. 2021. “Phycotoxin-Enriched Sea Spray Aerosols : Methods, Mechanisms, and Human Exposure.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 55 (9): 6184–96. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00995.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Acker, Emmanuel, Steve Huysman, Maarten De Rijcke, Jana Asselman, Karel De Schamphelaere, Lynn Vanhaecke, and Colin Janssen. 2021. “Phycotoxin-Enriched Sea Spray Aerosols : Methods, Mechanisms, and Human Exposure.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 55 (9): 6184–6196. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c00995.
Vancouver
1.
Van Acker E, Huysman S, De Rijcke M, Asselman J, De Schamphelaere K, Vanhaecke L, et al. Phycotoxin-enriched sea spray aerosols : methods, mechanisms, and human exposure. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2021;55(9):6184–96.
IEEE
[1]
E. Van Acker et al., “Phycotoxin-enriched sea spray aerosols : methods, mechanisms, and human exposure,” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 6184–6196, 2021.
@article{8704592,
  abstract     = {{To date, few studies have examined the role of sea spray aerosols (SSAs) in human exposure to harmful and beneficial marine compounds. Two groups of phycotoxins (brevetoxins and ovatoxins) have been reported to induce respiratory syndromes during harmful algal blooms. The aerosolization and coastal air concentrations of other common marine phycotoxins have, however, never been examined. This study provides the first (experimental) evidence and characterization of the aerosolization of okadaic acid (OA), homoyessotoxin, and dinophysistoxin-1 using seawater spiked with toxic algae combined with the realistic SSA production in a marine aerosol reference tank (MART). The potential for aerosolization of these phycotoxins was highlighted by their 78- to 1769-fold enrichment in SSAs relative to the subsurface water. To obtain and support these results, we first developed an analytical method for the determination of phycotoxin concentrations in SSAs, which showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99), recovery (85.3–101.8%), and precision (RSDs ≤ 17.2%). We also investigated natural phycotoxin air concentrations by means of in situ SSA sampling with concurrent aerosolization experiments using natural seawater in the MART. This approach allowed us to indirectly quantify the (harmless) magnitude of OA concentrations (0.6–51 pg m–3) in Belgium’s coastal air. Overall, this study provides new insights into the enriched aerosolization of marine compounds and proposes a framework to assess their airborne exposure and effects on human health.}},
  author       = {{Van Acker, Emmanuel and Huysman, Steve and De Rijcke, Maarten and Asselman, Jana and De Schamphelaere, Karel and Vanhaecke, Lynn and Janssen, Colin}},
  issn         = {{0013-936X}},
  journal      = {{ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Harmful algal blooms,Airborne exposure,Human health,Sea surface microlayer,Okadaic acid,Homoyessotoxin,Dinophysistoxin-1,Analytical method validation,UHPLC-HRMS.}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{9}},
  pages        = {{6184--6196}},
  title        = {{Phycotoxin-enriched sea spray aerosols : methods, mechanisms, and human exposure}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00995}},
  volume       = {{55}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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