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Abstract
The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will result in ten times higher particle background than measured during the first phase of LHC operation. In order to fully exploit the highly-demanding operating conditions during HL-LHC, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Collaboration will use Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector technology. The technology will be integrated into the innermost region of the forward muon spectrometer of CMS as an additional muon station called GE1/1. The primary purpose of this auxiliary station is to help in muon reconstruction and to control level-1 muon trigger rates in the pseudo-rapidity region 1.6 <= vertical bar eta vertical bar <= 2.2. The new station will contain trapezoidal-shaped GEM detectors called GE1/1 chambers. The design of these chambers is finalized, and the installation is in progress during the Long Shutdown phase two (LS-2) that started in 2019. Several full-size prototypes were built and operated successfully in various test beams at CERN. We describe performance measurements such as gain, efficiency, and time resolution of these prototype chambers, developed after years of R&D, and summarize their behavior in different gas compositions as a function of the applied voltage.
Keywords
GEM, GEM, CMS, High Luminosity LHC

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MLA
Abbas, M., et al. “Performance of Prototype GE1/1 Chambers for the CMS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade.” NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, vol. 972, Elsevier, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2020.164104.
APA
Abbas, M., Abbrescia, M., Abdalla, H., Abu Zeid, S., Agapitos, A., Ahmad, A., … Zaleski, S. (2020). Performance of prototype GE1/1 chambers for the CMS muon spectrometer upgrade. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, 972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2020.164104
Chicago author-date
Abbas, M., M. Abbrescia, H. Abdalla, S. Abu Zeid, A. Agapitos, A. Ahmad, A. Ahmed, et al. 2020. “Performance of Prototype GE1/1 Chambers for the CMS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade.” NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT 972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2020.164104.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Abbas, M., M. Abbrescia, H. Abdalla, S. Abu Zeid, A. Agapitos, A. Ahmad, A. Ahmed, W. Ahmed, I Asghar, P. Aspell, C. Avila, J. Babbar, Y. Ban, R. Band, S. Bansal, L. Benussi, V Bhatnagar, M. Bianco, S. Bianco, K. Black, L. Borgonovi, O. Bouhali, A. Braghieri, S. Braibant, S. Butalla, S. Calzaferri, M. Caponero, F. Cassese, N. Cavallo, S. Chauhan, S. Colafranceschi, A. Colaleo, A. Conde Garcia, M. Dalchenko, A. De Iorio, G. De Lentdecker, D. Dell Olio, G. De Robertis, W. Dharmaratna, Sven Dildick, B. Dorney, R. Erbacher, F. Fabozzi, F. Fallavollita, D. Fiorina, E. Fontanesi, M. Franco, C. Galloni, P. Giacomelli, J. Gilmore, M. Gola, M. Gruchala, A. Gutierrez, R. Hadjiiska, T. Hakkarainen, J. Hauser, K. Hoepfner, M. Hohlmann, H. Hoorani, T. Huang, P. Iaydjiev, A. Irshad, A. Iorio, J. Jaramillo, D. Jeong, V Jha, A. Juodagalvis, E. Juska, T. Kamon, P. Karchin, A. Kaur, H. Kaur, H. Keller, H. Kim, J. Kim, A. Kumar, S. Kumar, H. Kumawat, N. Lacalamita, J. Lee, A. Levin, Q. Li, F. Licciulli, L. Lista, F. Loddo, M. Lohan, M. Luhach, M. Maggi, N. Majumdar, K. Malagalage, S. Malhorta, S. Martiradonna, N. Mccoll, C. McLean, J. Merlin, D. Mishra, G. Mocellin, L. Moureaux, A. Muhammad, S. Muhammad, S. Mukhopadhyay, M. Naimuddin, P. Netrakanti, S. Nuzzo, R. Oliveira, L. Pant, P. Paolucci, I Park, L. Passamonti, G. Passeggio, A. Peck, L. Petre, H. Petrow, D. Piccolo, D. Pierluigi, G. Raffone, M. Rahmani, F. Ramirez, A. Ranieri, G. Rashevski, M. Ressegotti, C. Riccardi, M. Rodozov, Christos Roskas, B. Rossi, P. Rout, J. D. Ruiz, A. Russo, A. Safonov, D. Saltzberg, G. Saviano, A. Shah, A. Sharma, R. Sharma, M. Shopova, F. Simone, J. Singh, E. Soldani, U. Sonnadara, E. Starling, B. Stone, J. Sturdy, G. Sultanov, Z. Szillasi, D. Teague, D. Teyssier, T. Tuuva, Michael Tytgat, I Vai, N. Vanegas, R. Venditti, Piet Verwilligen, W. Vetens, A. Virdi, P. Vitulo, A. Wajid, D. Wang, K. Wang, N. Wickramage, Y. Yang, U. Yang, J. Yongho, I Yoon, Z. You, I Yu, and S. Zaleski. 2020. “Performance of Prototype GE1/1 Chambers for the CMS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade.” NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT 972. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2020.164104.
Vancouver
1.
Abbas M, Abbrescia M, Abdalla H, Abu Zeid S, Agapitos A, Ahmad A, et al. Performance of prototype GE1/1 chambers for the CMS muon spectrometer upgrade. NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT. 2020;972.
IEEE
[1]
M. Abbas et al., “Performance of prototype GE1/1 chambers for the CMS muon spectrometer upgrade,” NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, vol. 972, 2020.
@article{8702619,
  abstract     = {{The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will result in ten times higher particle background than measured during the first phase of LHC operation. In order to fully exploit the highly-demanding operating conditions during HL-LHC, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Collaboration will use Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector technology. The technology will be integrated into the innermost region of the forward muon spectrometer of CMS as an additional muon station called GE1/1. The primary purpose of this auxiliary station is to help in muon reconstruction and to control level-1 muon trigger rates in the pseudo-rapidity region 1.6 <= vertical bar eta vertical bar <= 2.2. The new station will contain trapezoidal-shaped GEM detectors called GE1/1 chambers. The design of these chambers is finalized, and the installation is in progress during the Long Shutdown phase two (LS-2) that started in 2019. Several full-size prototypes were built and operated successfully in various test beams at CERN. We describe performance measurements such as gain, efficiency, and time resolution of these prototype chambers, developed after years of R&D, and summarize their behavior in different gas compositions as a function of the applied voltage.}},
  articleno    = {{164104}},
  author       = {{Abbas, M. and Abbrescia, M. and Abdalla, H. and Abu Zeid, S. and Agapitos, A. and Ahmad, A. and Ahmed, A. and Ahmed, W. and Asghar, I and Aspell, P. and Avila, C. and Babbar, J. and Ban, Y. and Band, R. and Bansal, S. and Benussi, L. and Bhatnagar, V and Bianco, M. and Bianco, S. and Black, K. and Borgonovi, L. and Bouhali, O. and Braghieri, A. and Braibant, S. and Butalla, S. and Calzaferri, S. and Caponero, M. and Cassese, F. and Cavallo, N. and Chauhan, S. and Colafranceschi, S. and Colaleo, A. and Garcia, A. Conde and Dalchenko, M. and De Iorio, A. and De Lentdecker, G. and Olio, D. Dell and De Robertis, G. and Dharmaratna, W. and Dildick, Sven and Dorney, B. and Erbacher, R. and Fabozzi, F. and Fallavollita, F. and Fiorina, D. and Fontanesi, E. and Franco, M. and Galloni, C. and Giacomelli, P. and Gilmore, J. and Gola, M. and Gruchala, M. and Gutierrez, A. and Hadjiiska, R. and Hakkarainen, T. and Hauser, J. and Hoepfner, K. and Hohlmann, M. and Hoorani, H. and Huang, T. and Iaydjiev, P. and Irshad, A. and Iorio, A. and Jaramillo, J. and Jeong, D. and Jha, V and Juodagalvis, A. and Juska, E. and Kamon, T. and Karchin, P. and Kaur, A. and Kaur, H. and Keller, H. and Kim, H. and Kim, J. and Kumar, A. and Kumar, S. and Kumawat, H. and Lacalamita, N. and Lee, J. and Levin, A. and Li, Q. and Licciulli, F. and Lista, L. and Loddo, F. and Lohan, M. and Luhach, M. and Maggi, M. and Majumdar, N. and Malagalage, K. and Malhorta, S. and Martiradonna, S. and Mccoll, N. and McLean, C. and Merlin, J. and Mishra, D. and Mocellin, G. and Moureaux, L. and Muhammad, A. and Muhammad, S. and Mukhopadhyay, S. and Naimuddin, M. and Netrakanti, P. and Nuzzo, S. and Oliveira, R. and Pant, L. and Paolucci, P. and Park, I and Passamonti, L. and Passeggio, G. and Peck, A. and Petre, L. and Petrow, H. and Piccolo, D. and Pierluigi, D. and Raffone, G. and Rahmani, M. and Ramirez, F. and Ranieri, A. and Rashevski, G. and Ressegotti, M. and Riccardi, C. and Rodozov, M. and Roskas, Christos and Rossi, B. and Rout, P. and Ruiz, J. D. and Russo, A. and Safonov, A. and Saltzberg, D. and Saviano, G. and Shah, A. and Sharma, A. and Sharma, R. and Shopova, M. and Simone, F. and Singh, J. and Soldani, E. and Sonnadara, U. and Starling, E. and Stone, B. and Sturdy, J. and Sultanov, G. and Szillasi, Z. and Teague, D. and Teyssier, D. and Tuuva, T. and Tytgat, Michael and Vai, I and Vanegas, N. and Venditti, R. and Verwilligen, Piet and Vetens, W. and Virdi, A. and Vitulo, P. and Wajid, A. and Wang, D. and Wang, K. and Wickramage, N. and Yang, Y. and Yang, U. and Yongho, J. and Yoon, I and You, Z. and Yu, I and Zaleski, S.}},
  issn         = {{0168-9002}},
  journal      = {{NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT}},
  keywords     = {{GEM,GEM,CMS,High Luminosity LHC}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  publisher    = {{Elsevier}},
  title        = {{Performance of prototype GE1/1 chambers for the CMS muon spectrometer upgrade}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2020.164104}},
  volume       = {{972}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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