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Inhaled anesthetics : environmental role, occupational risk, and clinical use

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Abstract
Inhaled anesthetics have been in clinical use for over 150 years and are still commonly used in daily practice. The initial view of inhaled anesthetics as indispensable for general anesthesia has evolved during the years and, currently, its general use has even been questioned. Beyond the traditional risks inherent to any drug in use, inhaled anesthetics are exceptionally strong greenhouse gases (GHG) and may pose considerable occupational risks. This emphasizes the importance of evaluating and considering its use in clinical practices. Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of worsening climate changes, control measures are very slowly implemented. Therefore, it is the responsibility of all society sectors, including the health sector to maximally decrease GHG emissions where possible. Within the field of anesthesia, the potential to reduce GHG emissions can be briefly summarized as follows: Stop or avoid the use of nitrous oxide (N2O) and desflurane, consider the use of total intravenous or local-regional anesthesia, invest in the development of new technologies to minimize volatile anesthetics consumption, scavenging systems, and destruction of waste gas. The improved and sustained awareness of the medical community regarding the climate impact of inhaled anesthetics is mandatory to bring change in the current practice.
Keywords
inhaled anesthetics, environment, climate change, occupational health, patient risk, TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA, POSTOPERATIVE COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION, VOLATILE ANESTHETICS, NONCARDIAC SURGERY, NITROUS-OXIDE, INHALATIONAL ANESTHESIA, PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, MYOCARDIAL-ISCHEMIA, GENERAL-ANESTHESIA, CARDIAC PROTECTION

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MLA
Gaya da Costa, Mariana, et al. “Inhaled Anesthetics : Environmental Role, Occupational Risk, and Clinical Use.” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, vol. 10, no. 6, 2021, doi:10.3390/jcm10061306.
APA
Gaya da Costa, M., Kalmar, A., & Struys, M. (2021). Inhaled anesthetics : environmental role, occupational risk, and clinical use. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 10(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061306
Chicago author-date
Gaya da Costa, Mariana, Alain Kalmar, and Michel Struys. 2021. “Inhaled Anesthetics : Environmental Role, Occupational Risk, and Clinical Use.” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE 10 (6). https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061306.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gaya da Costa, Mariana, Alain Kalmar, and Michel Struys. 2021. “Inhaled Anesthetics : Environmental Role, Occupational Risk, and Clinical Use.” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE 10 (6). doi:10.3390/jcm10061306.
Vancouver
1.
Gaya da Costa M, Kalmar A, Struys M. Inhaled anesthetics : environmental role, occupational risk, and clinical use. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. 2021;10(6).
IEEE
[1]
M. Gaya da Costa, A. Kalmar, and M. Struys, “Inhaled anesthetics : environmental role, occupational risk, and clinical use,” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, vol. 10, no. 6, 2021.
@article{8700819,
  abstract     = {{Inhaled anesthetics have been in clinical use for over 150 years and are still commonly used in daily practice. The initial view of inhaled anesthetics as indispensable for general anesthesia has evolved during the years and, currently, its general use has even been questioned. Beyond the traditional risks inherent to any drug in use, inhaled anesthetics are exceptionally strong greenhouse gases (GHG) and may pose considerable occupational risks. This emphasizes the importance of evaluating and considering its use in clinical practices. Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of worsening climate changes, control measures are very slowly implemented. Therefore, it is the responsibility of all society sectors, including the health sector to maximally decrease GHG emissions where possible. Within the field of anesthesia, the potential to reduce GHG emissions can be briefly summarized as follows: Stop or avoid the use of nitrous oxide (N2O) and desflurane, consider the use of total intravenous or local-regional anesthesia, invest in the development of new technologies to minimize volatile anesthetics consumption, scavenging systems, and destruction of waste gas. The improved and sustained awareness of the medical community regarding the climate impact of inhaled anesthetics is mandatory to bring change in the current practice.}},
  articleno    = {{1306}},
  author       = {{Gaya da Costa, Mariana and Kalmar, Alain and Struys, Michel}},
  issn         = {{2077-0383}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE}},
  keywords     = {{inhaled anesthetics,environment,climate change,occupational health,patient risk,TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA,POSTOPERATIVE COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION,VOLATILE ANESTHETICS,NONCARDIAC SURGERY,NITROUS-OXIDE,INHALATIONAL ANESTHESIA,PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA,MYOCARDIAL-ISCHEMIA,GENERAL-ANESTHESIA,CARDIAC PROTECTION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6}},
  pages        = {{23}},
  title        = {{Inhaled anesthetics : environmental role, occupational risk, and clinical use}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061306}},
  volume       = {{10}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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