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From ‘conflict minerals’ to peace? Reviewing mining reforms, gender, and state performance in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

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Abstract
For the last two decades, the Congolese Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector has been undergoing reforms of its governing structures. A recurrent argument supporting the reforms - predominantly in the 3T ASM sector (i.e. tin, tantalum and tungsten) - is that artisanal mining feeds violence (including sexual violence), conflicts, underdevelopment, and poverty. The reforms have been extensively studied, and academic research in turn has triggered empirical policy and advocacy researches. Researchers have found different outcomes and interpretations of the effectiveness of the reforms. This study consists of a systematic review of the findings gathered from the literature on the changing role of the state in governing 3T mining. It argues that in the study areas (i.e. North-Kivu, South-Kivu and Tanganyika), the challenges faced by the state in governing artisanal mining tend to be similar, complex, and rooted in the mining history of eastern DRC. Recent armed conflicts have only added new layers to existing challenges. In addressing these challenges and given their complexity, the state has succeeded in some areas but has failed in putting in place a coherent `model' for governing the 3T ASM sector.
Keywords
Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Gender, Reforms, Governance

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MLA
Iguma Wakenge, Claude, et al. “From ‘conflict Minerals’ to Peace? Reviewing Mining Reforms, Gender, and State Performance in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.” EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 8, no. 2, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.exis.2021.100894.
APA
Iguma Wakenge, C., Bashwira Nyenyezi, M.-R., Bergh, S. I., & Cuvelier, J. (2021). From “conflict minerals” to peace? Reviewing mining reforms, gender, and state performance in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2021.100894
Chicago author-date
Iguma Wakenge, Claude, Marie-Rose Bashwira Nyenyezi, Sylvia I. Bergh, and Jeroen Cuvelier. 2021. “From ‘conflict Minerals’ to Peace? Reviewing Mining Reforms, Gender, and State Performance in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.” EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 8 (2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2021.100894.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Iguma Wakenge, Claude, Marie-Rose Bashwira Nyenyezi, Sylvia I. Bergh, and Jeroen Cuvelier. 2021. “From ‘conflict Minerals’ to Peace? Reviewing Mining Reforms, Gender, and State Performance in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.” EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 8 (2). doi:10.1016/j.exis.2021.100894.
Vancouver
1.
Iguma Wakenge C, Bashwira Nyenyezi M-R, Bergh SI, Cuvelier J. From “conflict minerals” to peace? Reviewing mining reforms, gender, and state performance in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL. 2021;8(2).
IEEE
[1]
C. Iguma Wakenge, M.-R. Bashwira Nyenyezi, S. I. Bergh, and J. Cuvelier, “From ‘conflict minerals’ to peace? Reviewing mining reforms, gender, and state performance in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo,” EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 8, no. 2, 2021.
@article{8700537,
  abstract     = {{For the last two decades, the Congolese Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector has been undergoing reforms of its governing structures. A recurrent argument supporting the reforms - predominantly in the 3T ASM sector (i.e. tin, tantalum and tungsten) - is that artisanal mining feeds violence (including sexual violence), conflicts, underdevelopment, and poverty. The reforms have been extensively studied, and academic research in turn has triggered empirical policy and advocacy researches. Researchers have found different outcomes and interpretations of the effectiveness of the reforms. This study consists of a systematic review of the findings gathered from the literature on the changing role of the state in governing 3T mining. It argues that in the study areas (i.e. North-Kivu, South-Kivu and Tanganyika), the challenges faced by the state in governing artisanal mining tend to be similar, complex, and rooted in the mining history of eastern DRC. Recent armed conflicts have only added new layers to existing challenges. In addressing these challenges and given their complexity, the state has succeeded in some areas but has failed in putting in place a coherent `model' for governing the 3T ASM sector.}},
  articleno    = {{100894}},
  author       = {{Iguma Wakenge, Claude and Bashwira Nyenyezi, Marie-Rose and Bergh, Sylvia I. and Cuvelier, Jeroen}},
  issn         = {{2214-790X}},
  journal      = {{EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES AND SOCIETY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL}},
  keywords     = {{Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM),Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC),Gender,Reforms,Governance}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{15}},
  title        = {{From ‘conflict minerals’ to peace? Reviewing mining reforms, gender, and state performance in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2021.100894}},
  volume       = {{8}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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