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Internal jugular vein phlebectasia in a one-year-old Warmblood stallion

Lisse Vera (UGent) , Sofie Muylle (UGent) , Gunther van Loon (UGent) , Laure Gatel, Ann Martens (UGent) and Katrien Vanderperren (UGent)
(2021) EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 33(7). p.e181-e185
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Abstract
Internal jugular vein phlebectasia (IJVP) is a saccular or fusiform dilation of the internal jugular vein without tortuosity. In human patients, it causes an asymptomatic intermittent unilateral swelling in the lower part of the neck. Although the diagnosis can be suggested based on the clinical features, confirmation by imaging techniques is necessary. This report describes the first reported case of IJVP in a one-year-old Warmblood horse. The horse was admitted with a large, soft intermittent swelling in the right jugular groove, especially when lowering the head. Ultrasound showed an enlarged vein (10 cm diameter) draining normally towards the heart. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) revealed a large distention of the deep venous system on the right side of the neck. Due to uncertain future athletic performance and both the extent and the complexity of the venous dilation, surgical intervention was declined and the horse was subjected to euthanasia. Post-mortem dissection revealed a small right external jugular vein but a markedly dilated right internal jugular vein (10 cm diameter), which is normally absent in horses. Based on the imaging and necropsy findings, diagnosis of IJVP was made.
Keywords
ENHANCED COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY, HORSES, horse, venous dilation, intermittent swelling, contract enhanced CT, cystic hygroma

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MLA
Vera, Lisse, et al. “Internal Jugular Vein Phlebectasia in a One-Year-Old Warmblood Stallion.” EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, vol. 33, no. 7, 2021, pp. e181–85, doi:10.1111/eve.13273.
APA
Vera, L., Muylle, S., van Loon, G., Gatel, L., Martens, A., & Vanderperren, K. (2021). Internal jugular vein phlebectasia in a one-year-old Warmblood stallion. EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, 33(7), e181–e185. https://doi.org/10.1111/eve.13273
Chicago author-date
Vera, Lisse, Sofie Muylle, Gunther van Loon, Laure Gatel, Ann Martens, and Katrien Vanderperren. 2021. “Internal Jugular Vein Phlebectasia in a One-Year-Old Warmblood Stallion.” EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION 33 (7): e181–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/eve.13273.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vera, Lisse, Sofie Muylle, Gunther van Loon, Laure Gatel, Ann Martens, and Katrien Vanderperren. 2021. “Internal Jugular Vein Phlebectasia in a One-Year-Old Warmblood Stallion.” EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION 33 (7): e181–e185. doi:10.1111/eve.13273.
Vancouver
1.
Vera L, Muylle S, van Loon G, Gatel L, Martens A, Vanderperren K. Internal jugular vein phlebectasia in a one-year-old Warmblood stallion. EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 2021;33(7):e181–5.
IEEE
[1]
L. Vera, S. Muylle, G. van Loon, L. Gatel, A. Martens, and K. Vanderperren, “Internal jugular vein phlebectasia in a one-year-old Warmblood stallion,” EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. e181–e185, 2021.
@article{8699540,
  abstract     = {{Internal jugular vein phlebectasia (IJVP) is a saccular or fusiform dilation of the internal jugular vein without tortuosity. In human patients, it causes an asymptomatic intermittent unilateral swelling in the lower part of the neck. Although the diagnosis can be suggested based on the clinical features, confirmation by imaging techniques is necessary. This report describes the first reported case of IJVP in a one-year-old Warmblood horse. The horse was admitted with a large, soft intermittent swelling in the right jugular groove, especially when lowering the head. Ultrasound showed an enlarged vein (10 cm diameter) draining normally towards the heart. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) revealed a large distention of the deep venous system on the right side of the neck. Due to uncertain future athletic performance and both the extent and the complexity of the venous dilation, surgical intervention was declined and the horse was subjected to euthanasia. Post-mortem dissection revealed a small right external jugular vein but a markedly dilated right internal jugular vein (10 cm diameter), which is normally absent in horses. Based on the imaging and necropsy findings, diagnosis of IJVP was made.}},
  author       = {{Vera, Lisse and Muylle, Sofie and van Loon, Gunther and Gatel, Laure and Martens, Ann and Vanderperren, Katrien}},
  issn         = {{0957-7734}},
  journal      = {{EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION}},
  keywords     = {{ENHANCED COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY,HORSES,horse,venous dilation,intermittent swelling,contract enhanced CT,cystic hygroma}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{7}},
  pages        = {{e181--e185}},
  title        = {{Internal jugular vein phlebectasia in a one-year-old Warmblood stallion}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eve.13273}},
  volume       = {{33}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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