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Purchasing policy, quarantine and acclimation practices of breeding gilts in Belgian pig farms

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Abstract
Background The breeding population is very important in pig herds, for productivity, health and profitability. Replacement of breeding animals can be accomplished by own rearing of breeding gilts or by purchasing them. Purchasing breeding gilts is a hazardous event in terms of biosecurity and introduction of pathogens into a farm. However, in literature, little is known about gilt introduction in a herd. The present study investigated the introduction procedures of purchased breeding gilts in Belgian pig herds, and the compliance of these herds to the optimal introduction procedures. A questionnaire consisting of twenty questions related to farm characteristics (n = 2), purchasing policy (n = 6), quarantine period (n = 5), and acclimation practices (n = 7) was designed, and 68 farms completed the questionnaire during an on-farm interview. Results The median (min. - max.) number of sows on the farms was 300 (85-2500). Fifty-seven per cent of the farms purchased breeding gilts, and there was a lot of variation in the frequency of purchase and the age at which gilts are purchased. On 95 % of those farms, a quarantine unit was used, and on most of these farms the quarantine was located on the farm itself (internal quarantine). The median (min. - max.) duration of the quarantine period was 42 (14-140) days. The most common acclimation practice was vaccination against Porcine parvovirus (96 %) and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (94 %), although in some farms exposure of gilts to farm-specific micro-organisms was done by providing faeces from suckling piglets (18 %) and bringing gilts in contact with sows that will be culled (16 %). Only 10 % of the farms complied with the optimal introduction procedures, i.e. purchasing policy, quarantine building and quarantine management. Conclusions This study showed that in many farms, practices related to purchasing, quarantine and acclimation could be improved to maintain optimal biosecurity.
Keywords
Purchasing policy, Quarantine, Acclimation practices, Introduction procedures, Vaccination, Breeding gilts, Pigs, ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE, MYCOPLASMA-HYOPNEUMONIAE, HERDS, SWINE, BIOSECURITY, DISEASE, TRANSMISSION, STRATEGIES, HEALTH

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MLA
Bernaerdt, Elise, et al. “Purchasing Policy, Quarantine and Acclimation Practices of Breeding Gilts in Belgian Pig Farms.” PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT, vol. 7, no. 1, 2021, doi:10.1186/s40813-021-00205-2.
APA
Bernaerdt, E., Dewulf, J., Verhulst, R., Bonckaert, C., & Maes, D. (2021). Purchasing policy, quarantine and acclimation practices of breeding gilts in Belgian pig farms. PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40813-021-00205-2
Chicago author-date
Bernaerdt, Elise, Jeroen Dewulf, Robin Verhulst, Caroline Bonckaert, and Dominiek Maes. 2021. “Purchasing Policy, Quarantine and Acclimation Practices of Breeding Gilts in Belgian Pig Farms.” PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT 7 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40813-021-00205-2.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bernaerdt, Elise, Jeroen Dewulf, Robin Verhulst, Caroline Bonckaert, and Dominiek Maes. 2021. “Purchasing Policy, Quarantine and Acclimation Practices of Breeding Gilts in Belgian Pig Farms.” PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT 7 (1). doi:10.1186/s40813-021-00205-2.
Vancouver
1.
Bernaerdt E, Dewulf J, Verhulst R, Bonckaert C, Maes D. Purchasing policy, quarantine and acclimation practices of breeding gilts in Belgian pig farms. PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT. 2021;7(1).
IEEE
[1]
E. Bernaerdt, J. Dewulf, R. Verhulst, C. Bonckaert, and D. Maes, “Purchasing policy, quarantine and acclimation practices of breeding gilts in Belgian pig farms,” PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT, vol. 7, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8699054,
  abstract     = {{Background The breeding population is very important in pig herds, for productivity, health and profitability. Replacement of breeding animals can be accomplished by own rearing of breeding gilts or by purchasing them. Purchasing breeding gilts is a hazardous event in terms of biosecurity and introduction of pathogens into a farm. However, in literature, little is known about gilt introduction in a herd. The present study investigated the introduction procedures of purchased breeding gilts in Belgian pig herds, and the compliance of these herds to the optimal introduction procedures. A questionnaire consisting of twenty questions related to farm characteristics (n = 2), purchasing policy (n = 6), quarantine period (n = 5), and acclimation practices (n = 7) was designed, and 68 farms completed the questionnaire during an on-farm interview. Results The median (min. - max.) number of sows on the farms was 300 (85-2500). Fifty-seven per cent of the farms purchased breeding gilts, and there was a lot of variation in the frequency of purchase and the age at which gilts are purchased. On 95 % of those farms, a quarantine unit was used, and on most of these farms the quarantine was located on the farm itself (internal quarantine). The median (min. - max.) duration of the quarantine period was 42 (14-140) days. The most common acclimation practice was vaccination against Porcine parvovirus (96 %) and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (94 %), although in some farms exposure of gilts to farm-specific micro-organisms was done by providing faeces from suckling piglets (18 %) and bringing gilts in contact with sows that will be culled (16 %). Only 10 % of the farms complied with the optimal introduction procedures, i.e. purchasing policy, quarantine building and quarantine management. Conclusions This study showed that in many farms, practices related to purchasing, quarantine and acclimation could be improved to maintain optimal biosecurity.}},
  articleno    = {{25}},
  author       = {{Bernaerdt, Elise and Dewulf, Jeroen and Verhulst, Robin and Bonckaert, Caroline and Maes, Dominiek}},
  issn         = {{2055-5660}},
  journal      = {{PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT}},
  keywords     = {{Purchasing policy,Quarantine,Acclimation practices,Introduction procedures,Vaccination,Breeding gilts,Pigs,ACTINOBACILLUS-PLEUROPNEUMONIAE,MYCOPLASMA-HYOPNEUMONIAE,HERDS,SWINE,BIOSECURITY,DISEASE,TRANSMISSION,STRATEGIES,HEALTH}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Purchasing policy, quarantine and acclimation practices of breeding gilts in Belgian pig farms}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40813-021-00205-2}},
  volume       = {{7}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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