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Automatic effects of covert practice

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Abstract
Automatic behaviour is supposedly underlain by the unintentional retrieval of processing episodes, which are stored during the repeated overt practice of a task or activity. In the present study, we investigated whether covertly practicing a task (e.g., repeatedly imagining responding to a stimulus) also leads to the storage of processing episodes and thus to automatic behaviour. Participants first either responded overtly or covertly to stimuli according to a first categorization task in a practice phase. We then measured the presence of automatic response-congruency effects in a subsequent test phase that involved a different categorization task but the same stimuli and responses. Our results indicate that covert practice can lead to a response-congruency effect. We conclude that covert practice can lead to automatic behaviour and discuss the different components of covert practice, such as motor imagery, visual imagery, and inner speech, that contribute to the formation of processing episodes in memory.
Keywords
Learning, automaticity, covert practice, MOTOR IMAGERY, MENTAL PRACTICE, INSTANCE THEORY, STIMULUS, ACQUISITION, INHIBITION, INTENTION, CURVES, BRAIN, POWER

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MLA
Liefooghe, Baptist, et al. “Automatic Effects of Covert Practice.” QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 74, no. 10, 2021, pp. 1697–708, doi:10.1177/17470218211007138.
APA
Liefooghe, B., Jim, A., & De Houwer, J. (2021). Automatic effects of covert practice. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 74(10), 1697–1708. https://doi.org/10.1177/17470218211007138
Chicago author-date
Liefooghe, Baptist, Ariane Jim, and Jan De Houwer. 2021. “Automatic Effects of Covert Practice.” QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 74 (10): 1697–1708. https://doi.org/10.1177/17470218211007138.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Liefooghe, Baptist, Ariane Jim, and Jan De Houwer. 2021. “Automatic Effects of Covert Practice.” QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 74 (10): 1697–1708. doi:10.1177/17470218211007138.
Vancouver
1.
Liefooghe B, Jim A, De Houwer J. Automatic effects of covert practice. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 2021;74(10):1697–708.
IEEE
[1]
B. Liefooghe, A. Jim, and J. De Houwer, “Automatic effects of covert practice,” QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 1697–1708, 2021.
@article{8698899,
  abstract     = {{Automatic behaviour is supposedly underlain by the unintentional retrieval of processing episodes, which are stored during the repeated overt practice of a task or activity. In the present study, we investigated whether covertly practicing a task (e.g., repeatedly imagining responding to a stimulus) also leads to the storage of processing episodes and thus to automatic behaviour. Participants first either responded overtly or covertly to stimuli according to a first categorization task in a practice phase. We then measured the presence of automatic response-congruency effects in a subsequent test phase that involved a different categorization task but the same stimuli and responses. Our results indicate that covert practice can lead to a response-congruency effect. We conclude that covert practice can lead to automatic behaviour and discuss the different components of covert practice, such as motor imagery, visual imagery, and inner speech, that contribute to the formation of processing episodes in memory.}},
  author       = {{Liefooghe, Baptist and Jim, Ariane and De Houwer, Jan}},
  issn         = {{1747-0218}},
  journal      = {{QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Learning,automaticity,covert practice,MOTOR IMAGERY,MENTAL PRACTICE,INSTANCE THEORY,STIMULUS,ACQUISITION,INHIBITION,INTENTION,CURVES,BRAIN,POWER}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{10}},
  pages        = {{1697--1708}},
  title        = {{Automatic effects of covert practice}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17470218211007138}},
  volume       = {{74}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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