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An inter-model comparison for wave interactions with sea dikes on shallow foreshores

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Abstract
Three open source wave models are applied in 2DV to reproduce a large-scale wave flume experiment of bichromatic wave transformations over a steep-sloped dike with a mildly-sloped and very shallow foreshore: (i) the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver interFoam of OpenFOAM(R) (OF), (ii) the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics model DualSPHysics (DSPH) and (iii) the non-hydrostatic nonlinear shallow water equations model SWASH. An inter-model comparison is performed to determine the (standalone) applicability of the three models for this specific case, which requires the simulation of many processes simultaneously, including wave transformations over the foreshore and wave-structure interactions with the dike, promenade and vertical wall. A qualitative comparison is done based on the time series of the measured quantities along the wave flume, and snapshots of bore interactions on the promenade and impacts on the vertical wall. In addition, model performance and pattern statistics are employed to quantify the model differences. The results show that overall, OF provides the highest model skill, but has the highest computational cost. DSPH is shown to have a reduced model performance, but still comparable to OF and for a lower computational cost. Even though SWASH is a much more simplified model than both OF and DSPH, it is shown to provide very similar results: SWASH exhibits an equal capability to estimate the maximum quasi-static horizontal impact force with the highest computational efficiency, but does have an important model performance decrease compared to OF and DSPH for the force impulse.
Keywords
inter-model comparison, wave modelling, shallow foreshore, dike-mounted vertical wall, wave impact loads, OpenFOAM, DualSPHysics, SWASH, COASTAL STRUCTURES, NUMERICAL-SIMULATION, VERTICAL WALL, SPH, DUALSPHYSICS, BREAKING, FLOWS, PROPAGATION, PERFORMANCE, GENERATION

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MLA
Gruwez, Vincent, et al. “An Inter-Model Comparison for Wave Interactions with Sea Dikes on Shallow Foreshores.” JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, vol. 8, no. 12, 2020, doi:10.3390/jmse8120985.
APA
Gruwez, V., Altomare, C., Suzuki, T., Streicher, M., Cappietti, L., Kortenhaus, A., & Troch, P. (2020). An inter-model comparison for wave interactions with sea dikes on shallow foreshores. JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, 8(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120985
Chicago author-date
Gruwez, Vincent, Corrado Altomare, Tomohiro Suzuki, Maximilian Streicher, Lorenzo Cappietti, Andreas Kortenhaus, and Peter Troch. 2020. “An Inter-Model Comparison for Wave Interactions with Sea Dikes on Shallow Foreshores.” JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 8 (12). https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120985.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gruwez, Vincent, Corrado Altomare, Tomohiro Suzuki, Maximilian Streicher, Lorenzo Cappietti, Andreas Kortenhaus, and Peter Troch. 2020. “An Inter-Model Comparison for Wave Interactions with Sea Dikes on Shallow Foreshores.” JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 8 (12). doi:10.3390/jmse8120985.
Vancouver
1.
Gruwez V, Altomare C, Suzuki T, Streicher M, Cappietti L, Kortenhaus A, et al. An inter-model comparison for wave interactions with sea dikes on shallow foreshores. JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. 2020;8(12).
IEEE
[1]
V. Gruwez et al., “An inter-model comparison for wave interactions with sea dikes on shallow foreshores,” JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, vol. 8, no. 12, 2020.
@article{8696714,
  abstract     = {{Three open source wave models are applied in 2DV to reproduce a large-scale wave flume experiment of bichromatic wave transformations over a steep-sloped dike with a mildly-sloped and very shallow foreshore: (i) the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver interFoam of OpenFOAM(R) (OF), (ii) the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics model DualSPHysics (DSPH) and (iii) the non-hydrostatic nonlinear shallow water equations model SWASH. An inter-model comparison is performed to determine the (standalone) applicability of the three models for this specific case, which requires the simulation of many processes simultaneously, including wave transformations over the foreshore and wave-structure interactions with the dike, promenade and vertical wall. A qualitative comparison is done based on the time series of the measured quantities along the wave flume, and snapshots of bore interactions on the promenade and impacts on the vertical wall. In addition, model performance and pattern statistics are employed to quantify the model differences. The results show that overall, OF provides the highest model skill, but has the highest computational cost. DSPH is shown to have a reduced model performance, but still comparable to OF and for a lower computational cost. Even though SWASH is a much more simplified model than both OF and DSPH, it is shown to provide very similar results: SWASH exhibits an equal capability to estimate the maximum quasi-static horizontal impact force with the highest computational efficiency, but does have an important model performance decrease compared to OF and DSPH for the force impulse.}},
  articleno    = {{985}},
  author       = {{Gruwez, Vincent and Altomare, Corrado and Suzuki, Tomohiro and Streicher, Maximilian and Cappietti, Lorenzo and Kortenhaus, Andreas and Troch, Peter}},
  issn         = {{2077-1312}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING}},
  keywords     = {{inter-model comparison,wave modelling,shallow foreshore,dike-mounted vertical wall,wave impact loads,OpenFOAM,DualSPHysics,SWASH,COASTAL STRUCTURES,NUMERICAL-SIMULATION,VERTICAL WALL,SPH,DUALSPHYSICS,BREAKING,FLOWS,PROPAGATION,PERFORMANCE,GENERATION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{37}},
  title        = {{An inter-model comparison for wave interactions with sea dikes on shallow foreshores}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120985}},
  volume       = {{8}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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