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Particulate matter and airborne endotoxin concentration in calf barns and their association with lung consolidation, inflammation, and infection

(2021) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 104(5). p.5932-5947
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Abstract
Agricultural operations are important sources of organic dust containing particulate matter (PM) and endotoxins, which have possible negative health con-sequences for both humans and animals. Dust concen-trations and composition in calf barns, as well as the potential health effects for these animals, are scarcely documented. The objective of this study was to mea-sure PM fractions and endotoxin concentrations in calf barns and study their associations with lung consoli-dation, respiratory tract inflammation, and infection in group-housed calves. In this cross-sectional study, samples from 24 dairy farms and 23 beef farms were collected in Belgium from January to April 2017. PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 (defined as particulate matter passing through a size-selective inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at a 1.0-μm, 2.5-μm, and 10-μm aerodynamic diam-eter, respectively) were sampled during a 24-h period using a Grimm aerosol spectrometer (Grimm Aerosol Technik Ainring GmbH & Co. KG). Endotoxin concen-tration was measured in the PM10 fraction. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid was collected for cytology and bacteriology. Average PM concentrations were 16.3 μg/m3 (standard deviation, SD: 17.1; range: 0.20–771), 25.0 μg/m3 (SD: 25.3; range: 0.50–144.9), and 70.3 μg/m3 (SD: 54.5; range: 1.6–251.2) for PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10, respec-tively. Mean endotoxin in the PM10 fraction was 4.2 endotoxin units (EU)/μg (SD: 5.50; range: 0.03–30.3). Concentrations in air were 205.7 EU/m3 (SD: 197.5; range: 2.32–901.0). Lung consolidations with a depth of ≥1, ≥3, and ≥6 cm were present in 43.1% (146/339), 27.4% (93/339), and 15.3% (52/339) of the calves, re-spectively. Exposure to fine (PM1.0) PM fractions was associated with increased odds of lung consolidations of ≥1 cm (odds ratio, OR: 3.3; confidence interval (CI): 1.5–7.1), ≥3 cm (OR: 2.8; CI: 1.2–7.1), and ≥6 cm (OR: 12.3; CI: 1.2–125.0). The odds of having lung consolidations of ≥1 cm (OR: 13.9; CI: 3.4–58.8) and ≥3 cm (OR: 6.7; 1.7–27.0) were higher when endotoxin concentrations in the dust mass exceeded 8.5 EU/μg. Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid neutrophil percentage was positively associated with PM10 concentration, and epithelial cell percentage was negatively associated with this fraction. Concentration of PM2.5 was positively as-sociated with epithelial cell percentage and isolation of Pasteurella multocida. Although concentrations of fine dust are lower in calf barns than in poultry and pig housings, in this study they were associated with pneumonia in calves. Dust control strategies for reduc-ing fine dust fractions in calf barns may benefit human and animal respiratory health
Keywords
Food Science, Animal Science and Zoology, Genetics, particulate matter, endotoxin, lung consolidation, pneumonia, RECURRENT AIRWAY-OBSTRUCTION, BOVINE RESPIRATORY-DISEASE, DAIRY HEIFER CALVES, ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES, ANIMAL HOUSES, DUST, EXPOSURE, MORTALITY, POULTRY, HEALTH

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MLA
van Leenen, Katharina, et al. “Particulate Matter and Airborne Endotoxin Concentration in Calf Barns and Their Association with Lung Consolidation, Inflammation, and Infection.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, vol. 104, no. 5, 2021, pp. 5932–47, doi:10.3168/jds.2020-18981.
APA
van Leenen, K., Jouret, J., Demeyer, P., Vermeir, P., Leenknecht, D., Van Driessche, L., … Pardon, B. (2021). Particulate matter and airborne endotoxin concentration in calf barns and their association with lung consolidation, inflammation, and infection. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 104(5), 5932–5947. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18981
Chicago author-date
Leenen, Katharina van, J. Jouret, P. Demeyer, Pieter Vermeir, Diederik Leenknecht, L. Van Driessche, L. De Cremer, et al. 2021. “Particulate Matter and Airborne Endotoxin Concentration in Calf Barns and Their Association with Lung Consolidation, Inflammation, and Infection.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 104 (5): 5932–47. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18981.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van Leenen, Katharina, J. Jouret, P. Demeyer, Pieter Vermeir, Diederik Leenknecht, L. Van Driessche, L. De Cremer, Christina Masmeijer, Filip Boyen, Piet Deprez, Eric Cox, Bert Devriendt, and Bart Pardon. 2021. “Particulate Matter and Airborne Endotoxin Concentration in Calf Barns and Their Association with Lung Consolidation, Inflammation, and Infection.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 104 (5): 5932–5947. doi:10.3168/jds.2020-18981.
Vancouver
1.
van Leenen K, Jouret J, Demeyer P, Vermeir P, Leenknecht D, Van Driessche L, et al. Particulate matter and airborne endotoxin concentration in calf barns and their association with lung consolidation, inflammation, and infection. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 2021;104(5):5932–47.
IEEE
[1]
K. van Leenen et al., “Particulate matter and airborne endotoxin concentration in calf barns and their association with lung consolidation, inflammation, and infection,” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 5932–5947, 2021.
@article{8696538,
  abstract     = {{Agricultural  operations  are  important  sources  of  organic  dust  containing  particulate  matter  (PM)  and  endotoxins,  which  have  possible  negative  health  con-sequences for both humans and animals. Dust concen-trations and composition in calf barns, as well as the potential health effects for these animals, are scarcely documented. The objective of this study was to mea-sure PM fractions and endotoxin concentrations in calf barns  and  study  their  associations  with  lung  consoli-dation,  respiratory  tract  inflammation,  and  infection  in  group-housed  calves.  In  this  cross-sectional  study,  samples  from  24  dairy  farms  and  23  beef  farms  were  collected in Belgium from January to April 2017. PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 (defined as particulate matter passing through a size-selective inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at a 1.0-μm, 2.5-μm, and 10-μm aerodynamic diam-eter,  respectively)  were  sampled  during  a  24-h  period  using  a  Grimm  aerosol  spectrometer  (Grimm  Aerosol  Technik Ainring GmbH & Co. KG). Endotoxin concen-tration  was  measured  in  the  PM10  fraction.  Thoracic  ultrasonography  was  performed  and  broncho-alveolar  lavage fluid was collected for cytology and bacteriology. Average PM concentrations were 16.3 μg/m3 (standard deviation, SD: 17.1; range: 0.20–771), 25.0 μg/m3 (SD: 25.3;  range:  0.50–144.9),  and  70.3  μg/m3  (SD:  54.5;  range:  1.6–251.2)  for  PM1.0,  PM2.5,  and  PM10,  respec-tively.  Mean  endotoxin  in  the  PM10  fraction  was  4.2  endotoxin units (EU)/μg (SD: 5.50; range: 0.03–30.3). Concentrations  in  air  were  205.7  EU/m3  (SD:  197.5;  range: 2.32–901.0). Lung consolidations with a depth of ≥1, ≥3, and ≥6 cm were present in 43.1% (146/339), 27.4% (93/339), and 15.3% (52/339) of the calves, re-spectively. Exposure to fine (PM1.0) PM fractions was associated with increased odds of lung consolidations of ≥1 cm (odds ratio, OR: 3.3; confidence interval (CI): 1.5–7.1),  ≥3  cm  (OR:  2.8;  CI:  1.2–7.1),  and  ≥6  cm  (OR:  12.3;  CI:  1.2–125.0).  The  odds  of  having  lung  consolidations of ≥1 cm (OR: 13.9; CI: 3.4–58.8) and ≥3 cm (OR: 6.7; 1.7–27.0) were higher when endotoxin concentrations in the dust mass exceeded 8.5 EU/μg. Broncho-alveolar  lavage  fluid  neutrophil  percentage  was positively associated with PM10 concentration, and epithelial cell percentage was negatively associated with this fraction. Concentration of PM2.5 was positively as-sociated  with  epithelial  cell  percentage  and  isolation  of Pasteurella  multocida.  Although  concentrations  of  fine  dust  are  lower  in  calf  barns  than  in  poultry  and  pig  housings,  in  this  study  they  were  associated  with  pneumonia in calves. Dust control strategies for reduc-ing fine dust fractions in calf barns may benefit human and animal respiratory health}},
  author       = {{van Leenen, Katharina and Jouret, J. and Demeyer, P. and Vermeir, Pieter and Leenknecht, Diederik and Van Driessche, L. and De Cremer, L. and Masmeijer, Christina and Boyen, Filip and Deprez, Piet and Cox, Eric and Devriendt, Bert and Pardon, Bart}},
  issn         = {{0022-0302}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE}},
  keywords     = {{Food Science,Animal Science and Zoology,Genetics,particulate matter,endotoxin,lung consolidation,pneumonia,RECURRENT AIRWAY-OBSTRUCTION,BOVINE RESPIRATORY-DISEASE,DAIRY HEIFER CALVES,ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES,ANIMAL HOUSES,DUST,EXPOSURE,MORTALITY,POULTRY,HEALTH}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{5932--5947}},
  title        = {{Particulate matter and airborne endotoxin concentration in calf barns and their association with lung consolidation, inflammation, and infection}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18981}},
  volume       = {{104}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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