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A five-stage treatment train for water recovery from urine and shower water for long-term human Space missions

(2020) DESALINATION. 495.
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Abstract
Long-term human Space missions will rely on regenerative life support as resupply of water, oxygen and food comes with constraints. The International Space Station (ISS) relies on an evaporation/condensation system to recover 74-85% of the water in urine, yet suffers from repetitive scaling and biofouling while employing hazardous chemicals. In this study, an alternative non-sanitary five-stage treatment train for one "astronaut" was integrated through a sophisticated monitoring and control system. This so-called Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) successfully treated urine (1.2-L-d with crystallisation, COD-removal, ammonification, nitrification and electrodialysis, before it was mixed with shower water (3.4-L-d(-1)). Subsequently, ceramic nanofiltration and single-pass flat-sheet RO were used. A four-months proof-of-concept period yielded: (i) chemical water quality meeting the hygienic standards of the European Space Agency, (ii) a 87- +/- -5% permeate recovery with an estimated theoretical primary energy requirement of 0.2-kWh p -L-1, (iii) reduced scaling potential without anti-scalant addition and (iv) and a significant biological reduction in biofouling potential resulted in stable but biofouling-limited RO permeability of 0.5 L-m(-2)-h(-1)-bar(-1). Estimated mass breakeven dates and a comparison with the ISS Water Recovery System for a hypothetical Mars transit mission show that WTUB is a promising biological membrane-based alternative to heat-based systems for manned Space missions.
Keywords
Mechanical Engineering, General Materials Science, General Chemistry, General Chemical Engineering, Water Science and Technology, Resource recovery, MELiSSA, ISS, ESA, Vapor compression distillation, Water reuse, PERACETIC-ACID, MEMBRANES, SYSTEMS, PH, DECOMPOSITION, CHALLENGES, ECONOMICS, KINETICS, FUTURE

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MLA
Lindeboom, Ralph, et al. “A Five-Stage Treatment Train for Water Recovery from Urine and Shower Water for Long-Term Human Space Missions.” DESALINATION, vol. 495, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.desal.2020.114634.
APA
Lindeboom, R., De Paepe, J., Vanoppen, M., lonso-Farinas, B., Coessens, W., Alloul, A., … Vlaeminck, S. E. (2020). A five-stage treatment train for water recovery from urine and shower water for long-term human Space missions. DESALINATION, 495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2020.114634
Chicago author-date
Lindeboom, Ralph, Jolien De Paepe, Marjolein Vanoppen, B. lonso-Farinas, W. Coessens, Abbas Alloul, M. E. R. Christiaens, et al. 2020. “A Five-Stage Treatment Train for Water Recovery from Urine and Shower Water for Long-Term Human Space Missions.” DESALINATION 495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2020.114634.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lindeboom, Ralph, Jolien De Paepe, Marjolein Vanoppen, B. lonso-Farinas, W. Coessens, Abbas Alloul, M. E. R. Christiaens, C. Dotremont, H. Beckers, B. Lamaze, D. Demey, P. Clauwaert, Arne Verliefde, and S. E. Vlaeminck. 2020. “A Five-Stage Treatment Train for Water Recovery from Urine and Shower Water for Long-Term Human Space Missions.” DESALINATION 495. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2020.114634.
Vancouver
1.
Lindeboom R, De Paepe J, Vanoppen M, lonso-Farinas B, Coessens W, Alloul A, et al. A five-stage treatment train for water recovery from urine and shower water for long-term human Space missions. DESALINATION. 2020;495.
IEEE
[1]
R. Lindeboom et al., “A five-stage treatment train for water recovery from urine and shower water for long-term human Space missions,” DESALINATION, vol. 495, 2020.
@article{8696529,
  abstract     = {{Long-term human Space missions will rely on regenerative life support as resupply of water, oxygen and food comes with constraints. The International Space Station (ISS) relies on an evaporation/condensation system to recover 74-85% of the water in urine, yet suffers from repetitive scaling and biofouling while employing hazardous chemicals. In this study, an alternative non-sanitary five-stage treatment train for one "astronaut" was integrated through a sophisticated monitoring and control system. This so-called Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) successfully treated urine (1.2-L-d with crystallisation, COD-removal, ammonification, nitrification and electrodialysis, before it was mixed with shower water (3.4-L-d(-1)). Subsequently, ceramic nanofiltration and single-pass flat-sheet RO were used. A four-months proof-of-concept period yielded: (i) chemical water quality meeting the hygienic standards of the European Space Agency, (ii) a 87- +/- -5% permeate recovery with an estimated theoretical primary energy requirement of 0.2-kWh p -L-1, (iii) reduced scaling potential without anti-scalant addition and (iv) and a significant biological reduction in biofouling potential resulted in stable but biofouling-limited RO permeability of 0.5 L-m(-2)-h(-1)-bar(-1). Estimated mass breakeven dates and a comparison with the ISS Water Recovery System for a hypothetical Mars transit mission show that WTUB is a promising biological membrane-based alternative to heat-based systems for manned Space missions.}},
  articleno    = {{114634}},
  author       = {{Lindeboom, Ralph and De Paepe, Jolien and Vanoppen, Marjolein and lonso-Farinas, B. and Coessens, W. and Alloul, Abbas and Christiaens, M. E. R. and Dotremont, C. and Beckers, H. and Lamaze, B. and Demey, D. and Clauwaert, P. and Verliefde, Arne and Vlaeminck, S. E.}},
  issn         = {{0011-9164}},
  journal      = {{DESALINATION}},
  keywords     = {{Mechanical Engineering,General Materials Science,General Chemistry,General Chemical Engineering,Water Science and Technology,Resource recovery,MELiSSA,ISS,ESA,Vapor compression distillation,Water reuse,PERACETIC-ACID,MEMBRANES,SYSTEMS,PH,DECOMPOSITION,CHALLENGES,ECONOMICS,KINETICS,FUTURE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  title        = {{A five-stage treatment train for water recovery from urine and shower water for long-term human Space missions}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2020.114634}},
  volume       = {{495}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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