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Transcranial direct‐current stimulation enhances implicit motor sequence learning in persons with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment

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Abstract
Implicit motor sequence learning (IMSL) is affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). Research in healthy young participants shows the potential for transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) to enhance IMSL. In PD, only null effects have been reported to date. We determined concurrent, short-term, and long-term effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on IMSL, as measured by the serial reaction time (SRT) task, in persons with PD with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Concurrent (anodal/sham tDCS intervention during the SRT task), short-term (5 min post-intervention), and long-term (1 week post-intervention) effects on IMSL were evaluated in persons with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage II-III) with MCI. Results of 11 persons with PD (8 men and 3 women; mean age = 77.1 years; mean disease duration = 7.7 years) showed significant IMSL in the anodal (p = .016), but not in the sham tDCS condition (p = .937). Post-hoc analyses showed that IMSL reached statistical significance at 1 week post-intervention (p < .001). Anodal tDCS over M1 exerted beneficial effects on IMSL in persons with PD with MCI, in particular one week post-intervention. Our study is the first to report a positive effect of tDCS on IMSL in PD. Further research should include a larger, more cognitively diverse sample and additional follow-up periods.
Keywords
Cognitive Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology, implicit learning, Parkinson&apos, s disease, procedural learning, sequence learning, serial reaction time task, transcranial direct&#8208, current stimulation, MINI-MENTAL-STATE, NONINVASIVE CORTICAL STIMULATION, FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY, SKILL ACQUISITION, CORTEX, EXCITABILITY, INDIVIDUALS, PERFORMANCE, DEPRESSION, DEMENTIA

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MLA
Firouzi, Mahyar, et al. “Transcranial Direct‐current Stimulation Enhances Implicit Motor Sequence Learning in Persons with Parkinson’s Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment.” JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 2021, doi:10.1111/jnp.12231.
APA
Firouzi, M., Van Herk, K., Kerckhofs, E., Swinnen, E., Baeken, C., Van Overwalle, F., & Deroost, N. (2021). Transcranial direct‐current stimulation enhances implicit motor sequence learning in persons with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment. JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnp.12231
Chicago author-date
Firouzi, Mahyar, Karlijn Van Herk, Eric Kerckhofs, Eva Swinnen, Chris Baeken, Frank Van Overwalle, and Natacha Deroost. 2021. “Transcranial Direct‐current Stimulation Enhances Implicit Motor Sequence Learning in Persons with Parkinson’s Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment.” JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnp.12231.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Firouzi, Mahyar, Karlijn Van Herk, Eric Kerckhofs, Eva Swinnen, Chris Baeken, Frank Van Overwalle, and Natacha Deroost. 2021. “Transcranial Direct‐current Stimulation Enhances Implicit Motor Sequence Learning in Persons with Parkinson’s Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment.” JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. doi:10.1111/jnp.12231.
Vancouver
1.
Firouzi M, Van Herk K, Kerckhofs E, Swinnen E, Baeken C, Van Overwalle F, et al. Transcranial direct‐current stimulation enhances implicit motor sequence learning in persons with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment. JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 2021;
IEEE
[1]
M. Firouzi et al., “Transcranial direct‐current stimulation enhances implicit motor sequence learning in persons with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment,” JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 2021.
@article{8696155,
  abstract     = {{Implicit motor sequence learning (IMSL) is affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). Research in healthy young participants shows the potential for transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) to enhance IMSL. In PD, only null effects have been reported to date. We determined concurrent, short-term, and long-term effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on IMSL, as measured by the serial reaction time (SRT) task, in persons with PD with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Concurrent (anodal/sham tDCS intervention during the SRT task), short-term (5 min post-intervention), and long-term (1 week post-intervention) effects on IMSL were evaluated in persons with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage II-III) with MCI. Results of 11 persons with PD (8 men and 3 women; mean age = 77.1 years; mean disease duration = 7.7 years) showed significant IMSL in the anodal (p = .016), but not in the sham tDCS condition (p = .937). Post-hoc analyses showed that IMSL reached statistical significance at 1 week post-intervention (p < .001). Anodal tDCS over M1 exerted beneficial effects on IMSL in persons with PD with MCI, in particular one week post-intervention. Our study is the first to report a positive effect of tDCS on IMSL in PD. Further research should include a larger, more cognitively diverse sample and additional follow-up periods.}},
  author       = {{Firouzi, Mahyar and Van Herk, Karlijn and Kerckhofs, Eric and Swinnen, Eva and Baeken, Chris and Van Overwalle, Frank and Deroost, Natacha}},
  issn         = {{1748-6645}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Cognitive Neuroscience,Behavioral Neuroscience,Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology,implicit learning,Parkinson&apos,s disease,procedural learning,sequence learning,serial reaction time task,transcranial direct&#8208,current stimulation,MINI-MENTAL-STATE,NONINVASIVE CORTICAL STIMULATION,FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY,SKILL ACQUISITION,CORTEX,EXCITABILITY,INDIVIDUALS,PERFORMANCE,DEPRESSION,DEMENTIA}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Transcranial direct‐current stimulation enhances implicit motor sequence learning in persons with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnp.12231}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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