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Resistance against macrocyclic lactones in Psoroptes ovis in cattle

Wouter van Mol (UGent) , Nathalie De Wilde (UGent) , Stijn Casaert (UGent) , Zhenzhen Chen (UGent) , Marieke Vanhecke (UGent) , Luc Duchateau (UGent) and Edwin Claerebout (UGent)
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Abstract
Background Psoroptic mange is an important disease in Belgian Blue cattle. Treatment failure of macrocyclic lactones against Psoroptes ovis has been reported, but clear evidence of in vivo resistance is lacking. This study assessed the efficacy of macrocyclic lactone products on 16 beef farms in Belgium and the Netherlands in vivo and in vitro. Methods On each farm a group of animals (n = 7-14) with psoroptic mange was treated with two subcutaneous injections of a macrocyclic lactone product with 7-10 days interval (15 farms) or a single injection with a long-acting macrocyclic lactone (1 farm). In vivo efficacy was assessed by the reduction in mite counts, clinical index (proportion of the body surface affected by lesions), the proportion of the animals with negative mite counts after the first treatment round and the number of treatment rounds needed to obtain zero mites counts in all animals. A mite population was categorized as sensitive when the mite count reduction after the first treatment round > 95% and the lower limit of the uncertainty interval > 90%. Resistance was detected when both parameters were below their threshold and suspected when one parameter was too low. In vitro knockdown and mortality were evaluated in a contact test. Results The proportion of the animals with negative mite counts after the first treatment round varied from 0 to 80%. All farms needed two or more treatments rounds to obtain zero mite counts on all animals. Clinical index only started to reduce after the second treatment round. Mite populations from three farms were categorized as sensitive, one as suspected resistant and 12 as resistant. No correlation was found between in vitro lethal dose 50 and knockdown dose 50 values and in vivo efficacy parameters. Conclusions Unambiguous treatment failure was detected on 12 out of 16 farms, confirming the presence of macrocyclic lactone resistance on Belgian Blue beef farms. In vitro parameters could not discriminate the farms based on their in vivo sensitivity. The mean reduction in mite counts and the lower limit of the confidence interval are proposed as parameters to identify acaricide resistance.
Keywords
STANCHIONED CATTLE, SHEEP SCAB, POUR-ON, IVERMECTIN, EFFICACY, MANGE, MITES, FORMULATIONS, INFESTATION, MOXIDECTIN, Psoroptes ovis, Macrocyclic lactones, Resistance

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MLA
van Mol, Wouter, et al. “Resistance against Macrocyclic Lactones in Psoroptes Ovis in Cattle.” PARASITES & VECTORS, vol. 13, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1186/s13071-020-04008-2.
APA
van Mol, W., De Wilde, N., Casaert, S., Chen, Z., Vanhecke, M., Duchateau, L., & Claerebout, E. (2020). Resistance against macrocyclic lactones in Psoroptes ovis in cattle. PARASITES & VECTORS, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04008-2
Chicago author-date
Mol, Wouter van, Nathalie De Wilde, Stijn Casaert, Zhenzhen Chen, Marieke Vanhecke, Luc Duchateau, and Edwin Claerebout. 2020. “Resistance against Macrocyclic Lactones in Psoroptes Ovis in Cattle.” PARASITES & VECTORS 13 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04008-2.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van Mol, Wouter, Nathalie De Wilde, Stijn Casaert, Zhenzhen Chen, Marieke Vanhecke, Luc Duchateau, and Edwin Claerebout. 2020. “Resistance against Macrocyclic Lactones in Psoroptes Ovis in Cattle.” PARASITES & VECTORS 13 (1). doi:10.1186/s13071-020-04008-2.
Vancouver
1.
van Mol W, De Wilde N, Casaert S, Chen Z, Vanhecke M, Duchateau L, et al. Resistance against macrocyclic lactones in Psoroptes ovis in cattle. PARASITES & VECTORS. 2020;13(1).
IEEE
[1]
W. van Mol et al., “Resistance against macrocyclic lactones in Psoroptes ovis in cattle,” PARASITES & VECTORS, vol. 13, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8695272,
  abstract     = {{Background Psoroptic mange is an important disease in Belgian Blue cattle. Treatment failure of macrocyclic lactones against Psoroptes ovis has been reported, but clear evidence of in vivo resistance is lacking. This study assessed the efficacy of macrocyclic lactone products on 16 beef farms in Belgium and the Netherlands in vivo and in vitro. Methods On each farm a group of animals (n = 7-14) with psoroptic mange was treated with two subcutaneous injections of a macrocyclic lactone product with 7-10 days interval (15 farms) or a single injection with a long-acting macrocyclic lactone (1 farm). In vivo efficacy was assessed by the reduction in mite counts, clinical index (proportion of the body surface affected by lesions), the proportion of the animals with negative mite counts after the first treatment round and the number of treatment rounds needed to obtain zero mites counts in all animals. A mite population was categorized as sensitive when the mite count reduction after the first treatment round > 95% and the lower limit of the uncertainty interval > 90%. Resistance was detected when both parameters were below their threshold and suspected when one parameter was too low. In vitro knockdown and mortality were evaluated in a contact test. Results The proportion of the animals with negative mite counts after the first treatment round varied from 0 to 80%. All farms needed two or more treatments rounds to obtain zero mite counts on all animals. Clinical index only started to reduce after the second treatment round. Mite populations from three farms were categorized as sensitive, one as suspected resistant and 12 as resistant. No correlation was found between in vitro lethal dose 50 and knockdown dose 50 values and in vivo efficacy parameters. Conclusions Unambiguous treatment failure was detected on 12 out of 16 farms, confirming the presence of macrocyclic lactone resistance on Belgian Blue beef farms. In vitro parameters could not discriminate the farms based on their in vivo sensitivity. The mean reduction in mite counts and the lower limit of the confidence interval are proposed as parameters to identify acaricide resistance.}},
  articleno    = {{127}},
  author       = {{van Mol, Wouter and De Wilde, Nathalie and Casaert, Stijn and Chen, Zhenzhen and Vanhecke, Marieke and Duchateau, Luc and Claerebout, Edwin}},
  issn         = {{1756-3305}},
  journal      = {{PARASITES & VECTORS}},
  keywords     = {{STANCHIONED CATTLE,SHEEP SCAB,POUR-ON,IVERMECTIN,EFFICACY,MANGE,MITES,FORMULATIONS,INFESTATION,MOXIDECTIN,Psoroptes ovis,Macrocyclic lactones,Resistance}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  title        = {{Resistance against macrocyclic lactones in Psoroptes ovis in cattle}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04008-2}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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