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Abstract
Levosimendan was first approved for clinic use in 2000, when authorisation was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the haemodynamic stabilisation of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure. In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitisation and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced heart failure, right ventricular failure and pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the US. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and non-cardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute heart failure arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.

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MLA
Papp, Zoltán, et al. “Levosimendan Efficacy and Safety : 20 Years of SIMDAX in Clinical Use.” CARDIAC FAILURE REVIEW, 2021, doi:10.15420/cfr.2020.03.
APA
Papp, Z., Agostoni, P., Alvarez, J., Bettex, D., Bouchez, S., Brito, D., … Pollesello, P. (2021). Levosimendan efficacy and safety : 20 years of SIMDAX in clinical use. CARDIAC FAILURE REVIEW. https://doi.org/10.15420/cfr.2020.03
Chicago author-date
Papp, Zoltán, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Julian Alvarez, Dominique Bettex, Stefaan Bouchez, Dulce Brito, Vladimir Černý, et al. 2021. “Levosimendan Efficacy and Safety : 20 Years of SIMDAX in Clinical Use.” CARDIAC FAILURE REVIEW. https://doi.org/10.15420/cfr.2020.03.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Papp, Zoltán, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Julian Alvarez, Dominique Bettex, Stefaan Bouchez, Dulce Brito, Vladimir Černý, Josep Comin-Colet, Marisa G Crespo-Leiro, Juan F Delgado, Istvan Édes, Alexander A Eremenko, Dimitrios Farmakis, Francesco Fedele, Cândida Fonseca, Sonja Fruhwald, Massimo Girardis, Fabio Guarracino, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Matthias Heringlake, Antoine Herpain, Leo MA Heunks, Tryggve Husebye, Višnja Ivancan, Kristjan Karason, Sundeep Kaul, Matti Kivikko, Janek Kubica, Josep Masip, Simon Matskeplishvili, Alexandre Mebazaa, Markku S Nieminen, Fabrizio Oliva, Julius-Gyula Papp, John Parissis, Alexander Parkhomenko, Pentti Põder, Gerhard Pölzl, Alexander Reinecke, Sven-Erik Ricksten, Hynek Riha, Alain Rudiger, Toni Sarapohja, Robert HG Schwinger, Wolfgang Toller, Luigi Tritapepe, Carsten Tschöpe, Gerhard Wikström, Dirk von Lewinski, Bojan Vrtovec, and Piero Pollesello. 2021. “Levosimendan Efficacy and Safety : 20 Years of SIMDAX in Clinical Use.” CARDIAC FAILURE REVIEW. doi:10.15420/cfr.2020.03.
Vancouver
1.
Papp Z, Agostoni P, Alvarez J, Bettex D, Bouchez S, Brito D, et al. Levosimendan efficacy and safety : 20 years of SIMDAX in clinical use. CARDIAC FAILURE REVIEW. 2021;
IEEE
[1]
Z. Papp et al., “Levosimendan efficacy and safety : 20 years of SIMDAX in clinical use,” CARDIAC FAILURE REVIEW, 2021.
@article{8695199,
  abstract     = {{Levosimendan was first approved for clinic use in 2000, when authorisation was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the haemodynamic stabilisation of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure. In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitisation and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced heart failure, right ventricular failure and pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the US. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and non-cardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute heart failure arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.}},
  articleno    = {{e19}},
  author       = {{Papp, Zoltán and Agostoni, Piergiuseppe and Alvarez, Julian and Bettex, Dominique and Bouchez, Stefaan and Brito, Dulce and Černý, Vladimir and Comin-Colet, Josep and Crespo-Leiro, Marisa G and Delgado, Juan F and Édes, Istvan and Eremenko, Alexander A and Farmakis, Dimitrios and Fedele, Francesco and Fonseca, Cândida and Fruhwald, Sonja and Girardis, Massimo and Guarracino, Fabio and Harjola, Veli-Pekka and Heringlake, Matthias and Herpain, Antoine and Heunks, Leo MA and Husebye, Tryggve and Ivancan, Višnja and Karason, Kristjan and Kaul, Sundeep and Kivikko, Matti and Kubica, Janek and Masip, Josep and Matskeplishvili, Simon and Mebazaa, Alexandre and Nieminen, Markku S and Oliva, Fabrizio and Papp, Julius-Gyula and Parissis, John and Parkhomenko, Alexander and Põder, Pentti and Pölzl, Gerhard and Reinecke, Alexander and Ricksten, Sven-Erik and Riha, Hynek and Rudiger, Alain and Sarapohja, Toni and Schwinger, Robert HG and Toller, Wolfgang and Tritapepe, Luigi and Tschöpe, Carsten and Wikström, Gerhard and Lewinski, Dirk von and Vrtovec, Bojan and Pollesello, Piero}},
  issn         = {{2057-7559}},
  journal      = {{CARDIAC FAILURE REVIEW}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Levosimendan efficacy and safety : 20 years of SIMDAX in clinical use}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/cfr.2020.03}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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