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Biology and epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

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Abstract
This article reviews the basics of gastrointestinal nematode biology and pathophysiology in cattle and describes how gastrointestinal nematode epidemiology is driven by environmental, host, and farm economic determinants. Adverse effects from gastrointestinal nematodes on their hosts are caused by tissue damage, nutrient absorption, immunopathologic effects, and reduced food intake induced by hormonal changes. Weather and microenvironmental factors influence the development and survival of free-living parasitic stages. A holistic control approach entails the consideration of environmental, immunologic, and socioeconomic aspects of nematode epidemiology and is key for the development and communication of sustainable control strategies.
Keywords
Gastrointestinal nematodes, Ostertagia, Cooperia, Epidemiology, Environment, Immunity, Pathophysiology, FREE-LIVING STAGES, OSTERTAGIA-OSTERTAGI, ANTHELMINTIC TREATMENT, HELMINTH INFECTIONS, ACQUIRED-RESISTANCE, MANAGEMENT-PRACTICES, COOPERIA-ONCOPHORA, DAIRY-COWS, CALVES, EXPOSURE

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MLA
Charlier, Johannes, et al. “Biology and Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Cattle.” VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA-FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE, vol. 36, no. 1, 2020, pp. 1–15, doi:10.1016/j.cvfa.2019.11.001.
APA
Charlier, J., Hoglund, J., Morgan, E. R., Geldhof, P., Vercruysse, J., & Claerebout, E. (2020). Biology and epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA-FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE, 36(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2019.11.001
Chicago author-date
Charlier, Johannes, Johan Hoglund, Eric R. Morgan, Peter Geldhof, Jozef Vercruysse, and Edwin Claerebout. 2020. “Biology and Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Cattle.” VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA-FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE 36 (1): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2019.11.001.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Charlier, Johannes, Johan Hoglund, Eric R. Morgan, Peter Geldhof, Jozef Vercruysse, and Edwin Claerebout. 2020. “Biology and Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Cattle.” VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA-FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE 36 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1016/j.cvfa.2019.11.001.
Vancouver
1.
Charlier J, Hoglund J, Morgan ER, Geldhof P, Vercruysse J, Claerebout E. Biology and epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA-FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE. 2020;36(1):1–15.
IEEE
[1]
J. Charlier, J. Hoglund, E. R. Morgan, P. Geldhof, J. Vercruysse, and E. Claerebout, “Biology and epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle,” VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA-FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2020.
@article{8694329,
  abstract     = {{This article reviews the basics of gastrointestinal nematode biology and pathophysiology in cattle and describes how gastrointestinal nematode epidemiology is driven by environmental, host, and farm economic determinants. Adverse effects from gastrointestinal nematodes on their hosts are caused by tissue damage, nutrient absorption, immunopathologic effects, and reduced food intake induced by hormonal changes. Weather and microenvironmental factors influence the development and survival of free-living parasitic stages. A holistic control approach entails the consideration of environmental, immunologic, and socioeconomic aspects of nematode epidemiology and is key for the development and communication of sustainable control strategies.}},
  author       = {{Charlier, Johannes and Hoglund, Johan and Morgan, Eric R. and Geldhof, Peter and Vercruysse, Jozef and Claerebout, Edwin}},
  issn         = {{0749-0720}},
  journal      = {{VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA-FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICE}},
  keywords     = {{Gastrointestinal nematodes,Ostertagia,Cooperia,Epidemiology,Environment,Immunity,Pathophysiology,FREE-LIVING STAGES,OSTERTAGIA-OSTERTAGI,ANTHELMINTIC TREATMENT,HELMINTH INFECTIONS,ACQUIRED-RESISTANCE,MANAGEMENT-PRACTICES,COOPERIA-ONCOPHORA,DAIRY-COWS,CALVES,EXPOSURE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{1--15}},
  title        = {{Biology and epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2019.11.001}},
  volume       = {{36}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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