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Evaluation of copromicroscopy and serology to measure the exposure to Ascaris infections across age groups and to assess the impact of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

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Abstract
Background: The scientific community has recently summarized the desired characteristics for diagnostic tools across the different phases of a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) mass drug administration (MDA) program. Although serology meets some of the desired criteria, there is a scarcity of data on baseline serological profiles in human populations, both prior to and during MDA programs. Methods: In this study, we compared the copromicroscopic and the serological infection profiles in 600 school-aged children (SAC) and 600 adults at the advent of the MDA program in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. The serological profiles were examined by two ELISAs that measure IgG4 responses to the Ascaris suum haemoglobin antigen (AsHb) and a somatic extract of lung stage larvae (AsLungL3). Three years into the MDA program, we sampled another group of 600 SAC from the same schools to assess the reduction in prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infections measured by copromicroscopy and serology. Principal findings: Prior to the start of MDA, copromicroscopy revealed an Ascaris prevalence of 31.0% and a mean fecal egg count of 2,919 eggs per gram (EPG) in SAC. Following three years of biannual treatment, the prevalence reduced to 13.2% (57.8% reduction) and the mean fecal egg count to 1,513 EPG (48.1% reduction). This reduction was also reflected in the serological results. The seroprevalence reduced with 40.9% and 27.4% and the mean optical density ratio reduced with 44.2% and 38.2% as measured by the AsHb or AsLungL3 ELISA respectively. We also showed that, despite a decreasing coproprevalence, seroprevalence to Ascaris increased with age. Conclusions: This study is the first to provide IgG4 response profiles of an endemic population to two different A. suum antigens. The results suggest that exposure to the infectious stages of Ascaris reaches beyond SAC alone. Furthermore, it highlights the possible use of serological assays to monitor changes in STH exposure during MDA programs.
Keywords
WUCHERERIA-BANCROFTI, FATTENING PIGS, SUUM, PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODIES, HELMINTH, DISEASE, SERODIAGNOSIS, DIAGNOSIS, COUNTRIES

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MLA
Dana, Daniel, et al. “Evaluation of Copromicroscopy and Serology to Measure the Exposure to Ascaris Infections across Age Groups and to Assess the Impact of 3 Years of Biannual Mass Drug Administration in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.” PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, vol. 14, no. 4, 2020, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008037.
APA
Dana, D., Vlaminck, J., Ayana, M., Tadege, B., Mekonnen Kurmane, Z., Geldhof, P., & Levecke, B. (2020). Evaluation of copromicroscopy and serology to measure the exposure to Ascaris infections across age groups and to assess the impact of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 14(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008037
Chicago author-date
Dana, Daniel, Johnny Vlaminck, Mio Ayana, Bamlaku Tadege, Zeleke Mekonnen Kurmane, Peter Geldhof, and Bruno Levecke. 2020. “Evaluation of Copromicroscopy and Serology to Measure the Exposure to Ascaris Infections across Age Groups and to Assess the Impact of 3 Years of Biannual Mass Drug Administration in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.” PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES 14 (4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008037.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Dana, Daniel, Johnny Vlaminck, Mio Ayana, Bamlaku Tadege, Zeleke Mekonnen Kurmane, Peter Geldhof, and Bruno Levecke. 2020. “Evaluation of Copromicroscopy and Serology to Measure the Exposure to Ascaris Infections across Age Groups and to Assess the Impact of 3 Years of Biannual Mass Drug Administration in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.” PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES 14 (4). doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008037.
Vancouver
1.
Dana D, Vlaminck J, Ayana M, Tadege B, Mekonnen Kurmane Z, Geldhof P, et al. Evaluation of copromicroscopy and serology to measure the exposure to Ascaris infections across age groups and to assess the impact of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES. 2020;14(4).
IEEE
[1]
D. Dana et al., “Evaluation of copromicroscopy and serology to measure the exposure to Ascaris infections across age groups and to assess the impact of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration in Jimma Town, Ethiopia,” PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, vol. 14, no. 4, 2020.
@article{8694315,
  abstract     = {{Background: The scientific community has recently summarized the desired characteristics for diagnostic tools across the different phases of a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) mass drug administration (MDA) program. Although serology meets some of the desired criteria, there is a scarcity of data on baseline serological profiles in human populations, both prior to and during MDA programs.

Methods: In this study, we compared the copromicroscopic and the serological infection profiles in 600 school-aged children (SAC) and 600 adults at the advent of the MDA program in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. The serological profiles were examined by two ELISAs that measure IgG4 responses to the Ascaris suum haemoglobin antigen (AsHb) and a somatic extract of lung stage larvae (AsLungL3). Three years into the MDA program, we sampled another group of 600 SAC from the same schools to assess the reduction in prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infections measured by copromicroscopy and serology.

Principal findings: Prior to the start of MDA, copromicroscopy revealed an Ascaris prevalence of 31.0% and a mean fecal egg count of 2,919 eggs per gram (EPG) in SAC. Following three years of biannual treatment, the prevalence reduced to 13.2% (57.8% reduction) and the mean fecal egg count to 1,513 EPG (48.1% reduction). This reduction was also reflected in the serological results. The seroprevalence reduced with 40.9% and 27.4% and the mean optical density ratio reduced with 44.2% and 38.2% as measured by the AsHb or AsLungL3 ELISA respectively. We also showed that, despite a decreasing coproprevalence, seroprevalence to Ascaris increased with age.

Conclusions: This study is the first to provide IgG4 response profiles of an endemic population to two different A. suum antigens. The results suggest that exposure to the infectious stages of Ascaris reaches beyond SAC alone. Furthermore, it highlights the possible use of serological assays to monitor changes in STH exposure during MDA programs.}},
  articleno    = {{e0008037}},
  author       = {{Dana, Daniel and Vlaminck, Johnny and Ayana, Mio and Tadege, Bamlaku and Mekonnen Kurmane, Zeleke and Geldhof, Peter and Levecke, Bruno}},
  issn         = {{1935-2735}},
  journal      = {{PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES}},
  keywords     = {{WUCHERERIA-BANCROFTI,FATTENING PIGS,SUUM,PERFORMANCE,ANTIBODIES,HELMINTH,DISEASE,SERODIAGNOSIS,DIAGNOSIS,COUNTRIES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{20}},
  title        = {{Evaluation of copromicroscopy and serology to measure the exposure to Ascaris infections across age groups and to assess the impact of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration in Jimma Town, Ethiopia}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008037}},
  volume       = {{14}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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