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The Diest Formation : a review of insights from the last decades

(2020) GEOLOGICA BELGICA. 23(3-4). p.199-218
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Abstract
Research conducted since the 1960s on the upper Miocene Diest Formation in NE Belgium is reviewed and integrated. Their lithology unites the deposits of the glauconiferous Diest Sand in one formation, though biozones and internal sedimentary structures strongly suggest the formation may agglomerate the deposits of two separate, successive sedimentary cycles. The lowermost cycle is thought to have deposited the "Hageland Diest sand" during the early or middle Tortonian. It contains the Diest Sand in the main outcrop area in Hageland, Zuiderkempen and central Limburg, and probably also the Deurne Member near the city of Antwerpen. It furthermore includes the lower part of the Dessel Member in the central Kempen and in the Belgian part of the Roer Valley Graben (RVG). The Hageland Diest cycle represents the infill of a large tidal inlet tributary to the southern North Sea bight, then situated over the southern Netherlands and the Lower Rhine embayment. The Hageland Diest sand has the composition of a marine deposit, yet the confined area of occurrence and the presence of tens of metres deep incisions at the base, set it apart. The confinement of the embayment, strong tides and a steady supply of coastal-marine sand arc invoked as the main driving forces that resulted in the distinctive geometry and internal architecture of the unit. The upper cycle is associated with the "Kempen Diest sand", which is found in the subsurface of the RVG and the Noorderkempen. It has a late Tortonian to earliest Messinian age with progressively younger ages occurring to the NW. It encompasses the upper part of the Dessel Member and the overlying, coarser Diest Sand, and correlates to most or all of the thickly developed Diessen Formation in The Netherlands. It is the deposit of a prograding marine delta, containing both marine components and continental components fed by the palaeo-Meuse/Rhine river mouths. Accommodation space kept increasing during deposition, due to subsidence of the deposition area, especially inside the RVG but also in the Noorderkempen. Although there is a fair consensus on the above, many concrete points about the geometry and depositional history of the Diest Formation and even a definitive decision on its single or dual character remain to be sorted out. In addition, this review excludes the Flemish Hills sand and the Gruitrode Member from the Diest Formation.
Keywords
DINOFLAGELLATE CYST STRATIGRAPHY, BASIN NORTHERN BELGIUM, LOWER RHINE BASIN, UPPER MIOCENE, SEDIMENTARY, CAMPINE, NEOGENE, PALEOGEOGRAPHY, GLAUCONITE, TERTIARY, Upper Miocene, Tortonian, confined embayment, deltaic progradation, depositional model, lithologic provenance, glauconiferous quartz sand

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Citation

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MLA
Houthuys, Rik, et al. “The Diest Formation : A Review of Insights from the Last Decades.” GEOLOGICA BELGICA, vol. 23, no. 3–4, 2020, pp. 199–218, doi:10.20341/gb.2020.012.
APA
Houthuys, R., Adriaens, R., Goolaerts, S., Laga, P., Louwye, S., Matthijs, J., … Verhaegen, J. (2020). The Diest Formation : a review of insights from the last decades. GEOLOGICA BELGICA, 23(3–4), 199–218. https://doi.org/10.20341/gb.2020.012
Chicago author-date
Houthuys, Rik, Rieko Adriaens, Stijn Goolaerts, Piet Laga, Stephen Louwye, Johan Matthijs, Noel Vandenberghe, and Jasper Verhaegen. 2020. “The Diest Formation : A Review of Insights from the Last Decades.” GEOLOGICA BELGICA 23 (3–4): 199–218. https://doi.org/10.20341/gb.2020.012.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Houthuys, Rik, Rieko Adriaens, Stijn Goolaerts, Piet Laga, Stephen Louwye, Johan Matthijs, Noel Vandenberghe, and Jasper Verhaegen. 2020. “The Diest Formation : A Review of Insights from the Last Decades.” GEOLOGICA BELGICA 23 (3–4): 199–218. doi:10.20341/gb.2020.012.
Vancouver
1.
Houthuys R, Adriaens R, Goolaerts S, Laga P, Louwye S, Matthijs J, et al. The Diest Formation : a review of insights from the last decades. GEOLOGICA BELGICA. 2020;23(3–4):199–218.
IEEE
[1]
R. Houthuys et al., “The Diest Formation : a review of insights from the last decades,” GEOLOGICA BELGICA, vol. 23, no. 3–4, pp. 199–218, 2020.
@article{8693866,
  abstract     = {{Research conducted since the 1960s on the upper Miocene Diest Formation in NE Belgium is reviewed and integrated. Their lithology unites the deposits of the glauconiferous Diest Sand in one formation, though biozones and internal sedimentary structures strongly suggest the formation may agglomerate the deposits of two separate, successive sedimentary cycles. 

The lowermost cycle is thought to have deposited the "Hageland Diest sand" during the early or middle Tortonian. It contains the Diest Sand in the main outcrop area in Hageland, Zuiderkempen and central Limburg, and probably also the Deurne Member near the city of Antwerpen. It furthermore includes the lower part of the Dessel Member in the central Kempen and in the Belgian part of the Roer Valley Graben (RVG). The Hageland Diest cycle represents the infill of a large tidal inlet tributary to the southern North Sea bight, then situated over the southern Netherlands and the Lower Rhine embayment. The Hageland Diest sand has the composition of a marine deposit, yet the confined area of occurrence and the presence of tens of metres deep incisions at the base, set it apart. The confinement of the embayment, strong tides and a steady supply of coastal-marine sand arc invoked as the main driving forces that resulted in the distinctive geometry and internal architecture of the unit. 

The upper cycle is associated with the "Kempen Diest sand", which is found in the subsurface of the RVG and the Noorderkempen. It has a late Tortonian to earliest Messinian age with progressively younger ages occurring to the NW. It encompasses the upper part of the Dessel Member and the overlying, coarser Diest Sand, and correlates to most or all of the thickly developed Diessen Formation in The Netherlands. It is the deposit of a prograding marine delta, containing both marine components and continental components fed by the palaeo-Meuse/Rhine river mouths. Accommodation space kept increasing during deposition, due to subsidence of the deposition area, especially inside the RVG but also in the Noorderkempen. 

Although there is a fair consensus on the above, many concrete points about the geometry and depositional history of the Diest Formation and even a definitive decision on its single or dual character remain to be sorted out. 

In addition, this review excludes the Flemish Hills sand and the Gruitrode Member from the Diest Formation.}},
  author       = {{Houthuys, Rik and Adriaens, Rieko and Goolaerts, Stijn and Laga, Piet and Louwye, Stephen and Matthijs, Johan and Vandenberghe, Noel and Verhaegen, Jasper}},
  issn         = {{1374-8505}},
  journal      = {{GEOLOGICA BELGICA}},
  keywords     = {{DINOFLAGELLATE CYST STRATIGRAPHY,BASIN NORTHERN BELGIUM,LOWER RHINE BASIN,UPPER MIOCENE,SEDIMENTARY,CAMPINE,NEOGENE,PALEOGEOGRAPHY,GLAUCONITE,TERTIARY,Upper Miocene,Tortonian,confined embayment,deltaic progradation,depositional model,lithologic provenance,glauconiferous quartz sand}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3-4}},
  pages        = {{199--218}},
  title        = {{The Diest Formation : a review of insights from the last decades}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.20341/gb.2020.012}},
  volume       = {{23}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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