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Connect vs conquer? CEO gender and implicit motives

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Abstract
Purpose This study examined gender differences in CEOs' expression of implicit achievement, power and affiliation motivation. Building on the role congruity account of sex differences and similarities in motivation and existing literature on implicit motives, the study tested whether female CEOs would express higher affiliation motivation than male CEOs and similar levels of achievement motivation. In addition, gender differences in power motivation were explored. Design/methodology/approach The study used propensity score matching to generate a comparable sample of male and female CEOs from publicly traded companies. Subsequently, the authors content-coded CEO letters from annual reports using Winter's (1994) manual for scoring motive imagery in running text. Findings Overall, CEOs expressed more achievement and power motivation than affiliation motivation. Comparisons between male and female CEOs showed that female CEOs expressed lower power and higher affiliation motivation than male CEOs. Research limitations/implications By integrating implicit motive theory with social role theory and the role congruity account of motivation, this study provides a theoretical framework and novel demonstration that understanding social roles and gender roles can lend insights into motive expression by CEOs. Originality/value The study uses established theory and a validated scoring method in a novel way by analyzing implicit motives from CEO letters, a critical communication channel in the CEO-shareholder relationship. In doing so, this study adopts a sociocultural perspective. Informed by the role congruity account of motivation, the study demonstrates the importance of social roles and gender roles for motivational displays.
Keywords
ACHIEVEMENT-MOTIVATION, COMMUNAL LEADERSHIP, WOMEN, METAANALYSIS, BACKLASH, POWER, STEREOTYPES, PERFORMANCE, PREJUDICE, PROFILES, Gender, Sex, Motivation, Achievement, Power, Affiliation, CEO, Leadership

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MLA
Brueckner, Julie, et al. “Connect vs Conquer? CEO Gender and Implicit Motives.” JOURNAL OF MANAGERIAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 36, no. 1, 2021, pp. 13–30, doi:10.1108/JMP-01-2019-0061.
APA
Brueckner, J., Bosak, J., & Lang, J. (2021). Connect vs conquer? CEO gender and implicit motives. JOURNAL OF MANAGERIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 36(1), 13–30. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-01-2019-0061
Chicago author-date
Brueckner, Julie, Janine Bosak, and Jonas Lang. 2021. “Connect vs Conquer? CEO Gender and Implicit Motives.” JOURNAL OF MANAGERIAL PSYCHOLOGY 36 (1): 13–30. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-01-2019-0061.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Brueckner, Julie, Janine Bosak, and Jonas Lang. 2021. “Connect vs Conquer? CEO Gender and Implicit Motives.” JOURNAL OF MANAGERIAL PSYCHOLOGY 36 (1): 13–30. doi:10.1108/JMP-01-2019-0061.
Vancouver
1.
Brueckner J, Bosak J, Lang J. Connect vs conquer? CEO gender and implicit motives. JOURNAL OF MANAGERIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 2021;36(1):13–30.
IEEE
[1]
J. Brueckner, J. Bosak, and J. Lang, “Connect vs conquer? CEO gender and implicit motives,” JOURNAL OF MANAGERIAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 13–30, 2021.
@article{8691045,
  abstract     = {Purpose This study examined gender differences in CEOs' expression of implicit achievement, power and affiliation motivation. Building on the role congruity account of sex differences and similarities in motivation and existing literature on implicit motives, the study tested whether female CEOs would express higher affiliation motivation than male CEOs and similar levels of achievement motivation. In addition, gender differences in power motivation were explored. Design/methodology/approach The study used propensity score matching to generate a comparable sample of male and female CEOs from publicly traded companies. Subsequently, the authors content-coded CEO letters from annual reports using Winter's (1994) manual for scoring motive imagery in running text. Findings Overall, CEOs expressed more achievement and power motivation than affiliation motivation. Comparisons between male and female CEOs showed that female CEOs expressed lower power and higher affiliation motivation than male CEOs. Research limitations/implications By integrating implicit motive theory with social role theory and the role congruity account of motivation, this study provides a theoretical framework and novel demonstration that understanding social roles and gender roles can lend insights into motive expression by CEOs. Originality/value The study uses established theory and a validated scoring method in a novel way by analyzing implicit motives from CEO letters, a critical communication channel in the CEO-shareholder relationship. In doing so, this study adopts a sociocultural perspective. Informed by the role congruity account of motivation, the study demonstrates the importance of social roles and gender roles for motivational displays.},
  author       = {Brueckner, Julie and Bosak, Janine and Lang, Jonas},
  issn         = {0268-3946},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF MANAGERIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {ACHIEVEMENT-MOTIVATION,COMMUNAL LEADERSHIP,WOMEN,METAANALYSIS,BACKLASH,POWER,STEREOTYPES,PERFORMANCE,PREJUDICE,PROFILES,Gender,Sex,Motivation,Achievement,Power,Affiliation,CEO,Leadership},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {13--30},
  title        = {Connect vs conquer? CEO gender and implicit motives},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMP-01-2019-0061},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2021},
}

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