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Measuring predictors of psychopathology in Italian adolescents : forgiveness, avoidance and revenge

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Abstract
The 18-item Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory (TRIM-18) is a three-dimensional measure of contextual forgiveness widely used in contexts of psychopathology. The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the TRIM-18 in Italian adolescents. In study 1 and 2 we examined the internal validity of the scale using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) in a sample of 724 students (females = 67.8%; M-age = 16.26, SD = 5.21), and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), in an independent sample of 802 students (females = 51.1%; mean age = 15.95, SD = 1.49). In study 3 we examined the convergent, discriminant, criterion and construct validity in a sample of 274 students (females = 59.1%; M-age = 14.32, SD = 2.73) with measures of forgiveness, positive and negative affect and psychopathology symptoms. EFA confirmed the three original factors, Avoidance, Revenge, and Benevolence and CFA supported the three-factorial structure of the scale. The average variance extracted values of the three TRIM-18 factors in study three provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The correlations between the TRIM-18 scales and the forgiveness measures ranged from strong to moderate, supporting its convergent validity. Similarly, the correlations with affect, and psychopathology measures in expected directions supported the construct validity of the TRIM-18 scales. Results showed strong composite reliability estimates in each sample for all three factors (>.84). The Italian adaptation of the TRIM-18 demonstrated good psychometric properties supporting its reliability and validity as a measure of three forgiveness facets including Avoidance, Revenge, and Benevolence, that are associated with psychopathology in adolescents.
Keywords
General Psychology, TRIM-18, Forgiveness, Adolescents, Psychopathology, Well-being

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MLA
Barcaccia, Barbara, et al. “Measuring Predictors of Psychopathology in Italian Adolescents : Forgiveness, Avoidance and Revenge.” CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY, 2021, doi:10.1007/s12144-021-01414-2.
APA
Barcaccia, B., Ioverno, S., Salvati, M., Medvedev, O. N., Pallini, S., & Vecchio, G. M. (2021). Measuring predictors of psychopathology in Italian adolescents : forgiveness, avoidance and revenge. CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01414-2
Chicago author-date
Barcaccia, Barbara, Salvatore Ioverno, Marco Salvati, Oleg N. Medvedev, Susanna Pallini, and Giovanni Maria Vecchio. 2021. “Measuring Predictors of Psychopathology in Italian Adolescents : Forgiveness, Avoidance and Revenge.” CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01414-2.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Barcaccia, Barbara, Salvatore Ioverno, Marco Salvati, Oleg N. Medvedev, Susanna Pallini, and Giovanni Maria Vecchio. 2021. “Measuring Predictors of Psychopathology in Italian Adolescents : Forgiveness, Avoidance and Revenge.” CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY. doi:10.1007/s12144-021-01414-2.
Vancouver
1.
Barcaccia B, Ioverno S, Salvati M, Medvedev ON, Pallini S, Vecchio GM. Measuring predictors of psychopathology in Italian adolescents : forgiveness, avoidance and revenge. CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY. 2021;
IEEE
[1]
B. Barcaccia, S. Ioverno, M. Salvati, O. N. Medvedev, S. Pallini, and G. M. Vecchio, “Measuring predictors of psychopathology in Italian adolescents : forgiveness, avoidance and revenge,” CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY, 2021.
@article{8690987,
  abstract     = {The 18-item Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory (TRIM-18) is a three-dimensional measure of contextual forgiveness widely used in contexts of psychopathology. The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the TRIM-18 in Italian adolescents. In study 1 and 2 we examined the internal validity of the scale using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) in a sample of 724 students (females = 67.8%; M-age = 16.26, SD = 5.21), and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), in an independent sample of 802 students (females = 51.1%; mean age = 15.95, SD = 1.49). In study 3 we examined the convergent, discriminant, criterion and construct validity in a sample of 274 students (females = 59.1%; M-age = 14.32, SD = 2.73) with measures of forgiveness, positive and negative affect and psychopathology symptoms. EFA confirmed the three original factors, Avoidance, Revenge, and Benevolence and CFA supported the three-factorial structure of the scale. The average variance extracted values of the three TRIM-18 factors in study three provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The correlations between the TRIM-18 scales and the forgiveness measures ranged from strong to moderate, supporting its convergent validity. Similarly, the correlations with affect, and psychopathology measures in expected directions supported the construct validity of the TRIM-18 scales. Results showed strong composite reliability estimates in each sample for all three factors (>.84). The Italian adaptation of the TRIM-18 demonstrated good psychometric properties supporting its reliability and validity as a measure of three forgiveness facets including Avoidance, Revenge, and Benevolence, that are associated with psychopathology in adolescents.},
  author       = {Barcaccia, Barbara and Ioverno, Salvatore and Salvati, Marco and Medvedev, Oleg N. and Pallini, Susanna and Vecchio, Giovanni Maria},
  issn         = {1046-1310},
  journal      = {CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {General Psychology,TRIM-18,Forgiveness,Adolescents,Psychopathology,Well-being},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {15},
  title        = {Measuring predictors of psychopathology in Italian adolescents : forgiveness, avoidance and revenge},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01414-2},
  year         = {2021},
}

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