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Phenotypic divergence, convergence and evolution of Caucasian rock lizards (Darevskia)

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Abstract
Phenotypic evolution can cause either divergent or convergent phenotypic patterns. Even adaptation to the same environment may result in divergence of some elements of phenotype, whereas for other morphological traits it could cause phenotypic convergence. We hypothesize that at least some phenotypic characters diverge monotonically, hence they evolve irreversibly even in very closely related species, and this happens in spite of multiple convergent adaptive patterns. We studied the evolution of phenotype in 13 closely related Caucasian rock lizards (Darevskia), whose phylogenetic relationships are well known. We used head shape and the outlines of three important scales, using geometric morphometrics. We studied the association of the overall head shape, individual principal components of head shape and scale outlines with four predictors: phylogeny, habitat, sex and size. The overall head shape was not correlated with any of these predictors, whereas some principal components were correlated with habitat or phylogeny. Habitat type explained the highest fraction of variation in head shape and anal scale area. The relatedness inferred from the components of phenotype not correlated with habitat was congruent with the phylogenetic tree inferred from molecular data. Although adaptation to local environments may obscure the phylogenetic signal present in phenotype, there are components of phenotype whose evolution is irreversible.
Keywords
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, adaptation, Darevskia, Dollo's law, geometric morphometrics, lizards, phenotypic vs, genotypic evolution, phylogeny, rock-dwelling, three-dimensional head shape, HEAD SHAPE EVOLUTION, GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS, PHYLOGENETIC CONSTRAINTS, MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY, SEXUAL-DIMORPHISM, SKULL MORPHOLOGY, SPECIES COMPLEX, HABITAT USE, R PACKAGE, DNA

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MLA
Tarkhnishvili, David, et al. “Phenotypic Divergence, Convergence and Evolution of Caucasian Rock Lizards (Darevskia).” BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, vol. 130, no. 1, 2020, pp. 142–55, doi:10.1093/biolinnean/blaa021.
APA
Tarkhnishvili, D., Gabelaia, M., & Adriaens, D. (2020). Phenotypic divergence, convergence and evolution of Caucasian rock lizards (Darevskia). BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, 130(1), 142–155. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blaa021
Chicago author-date
Tarkhnishvili, David, Mariam Gabelaia, and Dominique Adriaens. 2020. “Phenotypic Divergence, Convergence and Evolution of Caucasian Rock Lizards (Darevskia).” BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY 130 (1): 142–55. https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blaa021.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Tarkhnishvili, David, Mariam Gabelaia, and Dominique Adriaens. 2020. “Phenotypic Divergence, Convergence and Evolution of Caucasian Rock Lizards (Darevskia).” BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY 130 (1): 142–155. doi:10.1093/biolinnean/blaa021.
Vancouver
1.
Tarkhnishvili D, Gabelaia M, Adriaens D. Phenotypic divergence, convergence and evolution of Caucasian rock lizards (Darevskia). BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY. 2020;130(1):142–55.
IEEE
[1]
D. Tarkhnishvili, M. Gabelaia, and D. Adriaens, “Phenotypic divergence, convergence and evolution of Caucasian rock lizards (Darevskia),” BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 142–155, 2020.
@article{8688447,
  abstract     = {Phenotypic evolution can cause either divergent or convergent phenotypic patterns. Even adaptation to the same environment may result in divergence of some elements of phenotype, whereas for other morphological traits it could cause phenotypic convergence. We hypothesize that at least some phenotypic characters diverge monotonically, hence they evolve irreversibly even in very closely related species, and this happens in spite of multiple convergent adaptive patterns. We studied the evolution of phenotype in 13 closely related Caucasian rock lizards (Darevskia), whose phylogenetic relationships are well known. We used head shape and the outlines of three important scales, using geometric morphometrics. We studied the association of the overall head shape, individual principal components of head shape and scale outlines with four predictors: phylogeny, habitat, sex and size. The overall head shape was not correlated with any of these predictors, whereas some principal components were correlated with habitat or phylogeny. Habitat type explained the highest fraction of variation in head shape and anal scale area. The relatedness inferred from the components of phenotype not correlated with habitat was congruent with the phylogenetic tree inferred from molecular data. Although adaptation to local environments may obscure the phylogenetic signal present in phenotype, there are components of phenotype whose evolution is irreversible.},
  author       = {Tarkhnishvili, David and Gabelaia, Mariam and Adriaens, Dominique},
  issn         = {0024-4066},
  journal      = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
  keywords     = {Ecology,Evolution,Behavior and Systematics,adaptation,Darevskia,Dollo's law,geometric morphometrics,lizards,phenotypic vs,genotypic evolution,phylogeny,rock-dwelling,three-dimensional head shape,HEAD SHAPE EVOLUTION,GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS,PHYLOGENETIC CONSTRAINTS,MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY,SEXUAL-DIMORPHISM,SKULL MORPHOLOGY,SPECIES COMPLEX,HABITAT USE,R PACKAGE,DNA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {142--155},
  title        = {Phenotypic divergence, convergence and evolution of Caucasian rock lizards (Darevskia)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blaa021},
  volume       = {130},
  year         = {2020},
}

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