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Advances in oral subunit vaccine design

Hans Van Der Weken (UGent) , Eric Cox (UGent) and Bert Devriendt (UGent)
(2021) VACCINES. 9(1).
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Abstract
Many pathogens invade the host at the intestinal surface. To protect against these enteropathogens, the induction of intestinal secretory IgA (SIgA) responses is paramount. While systemic vaccination provides strong systemic immune responses, oral vaccination is the most efficient way to trigger protective SIgA responses. However, the development of oral vaccines, especially oral subunit vaccines, is challenging due to mechanisms inherent to the gut. Oral vaccines need to survive the harsh environment in the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by low pH and intestinal proteases and need to reach the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, which are protected by chemical and physical barriers that prevent efficient uptake. Furthermore, they need to surmount default tolerogenic responses present in the gut, resulting in suppression of immunity or tolerance. Several strategies have been developed to tackle these hurdles, such as delivery systems that protect vaccine antigens from degradation, strong mucosal adjuvants that induce robust immune responses and targeting approaches that aim to selectively deliver vaccine antigens towards specific immune cell populations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in oral vaccine design to enable the induction of robust gut immunity and highlight that the development of next generation oral subunit vaccines will require approaches that combines these solutions.
Keywords
Immunology, Pharmacology (medical), Pharmacology, Drug Discovery, Infectious Diseases, oral vaccination, subunit vaccines, mucosal immunity, secretory IgA, adjuvants, targeted delivery, Micro, and nanoparticles

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Van Der Weken, Hans, et al. “Advances in Oral Subunit Vaccine Design.” VACCINES, vol. 9, no. 1, 2021, doi:10.3390/vaccines9010001.
APA
Van Der Weken, H., Cox, E., & Devriendt, B. (2021). Advances in oral subunit vaccine design. VACCINES, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010001
Chicago author-date
Van Der Weken, Hans, Eric Cox, and Bert Devriendt. 2021. “Advances in Oral Subunit Vaccine Design.” VACCINES 9 (1). https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010001.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Der Weken, Hans, Eric Cox, and Bert Devriendt. 2021. “Advances in Oral Subunit Vaccine Design.” VACCINES 9 (1). doi:10.3390/vaccines9010001.
Vancouver
1.
Van Der Weken H, Cox E, Devriendt B. Advances in oral subunit vaccine design. VACCINES. 2021;9(1).
IEEE
[1]
H. Van Der Weken, E. Cox, and B. Devriendt, “Advances in oral subunit vaccine design,” VACCINES, vol. 9, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8687561,
  abstract     = {{Many pathogens invade the host at the intestinal surface. To protect against these enteropathogens, the induction of intestinal secretory IgA (SIgA) responses is paramount. While systemic vaccination provides strong systemic immune responses, oral vaccination is the most efficient way to trigger protective SIgA responses. However, the development of oral vaccines, especially oral subunit vaccines, is challenging due to mechanisms inherent to the gut. Oral vaccines need to survive the harsh environment in the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by low pH and intestinal proteases and need to reach the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, which are protected by chemical and physical barriers that prevent efficient uptake. Furthermore, they need to surmount default tolerogenic responses present in the gut, resulting in suppression of immunity or tolerance. Several strategies have been developed to tackle these hurdles, such as delivery systems that protect vaccine antigens from degradation, strong mucosal adjuvants that induce robust immune responses and targeting approaches that aim to selectively deliver vaccine antigens towards specific immune cell populations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in oral vaccine design to enable the induction of robust gut immunity and highlight that the development of next generation oral subunit vaccines will require approaches that combines these solutions.}},
  articleno    = {{1}},
  author       = {{Van Der Weken, Hans and Cox, Eric and Devriendt, Bert}},
  issn         = {{2076-393X}},
  journal      = {{VACCINES}},
  keywords     = {{Immunology,Pharmacology (medical),Pharmacology,Drug Discovery,Infectious Diseases,oral vaccination,subunit vaccines,mucosal immunity,secretory IgA,adjuvants,targeted delivery,Micro,and nanoparticles}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{23}},
  title        = {{Advances in oral subunit vaccine design}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010001}},
  volume       = {{9}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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