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High occurrence of Anisakidae at retail level in cod (Gadus morhua) belly flaps and the impact of extensive candling

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Abstract
The presence of Anisakidae at retail level, after the routine screening via candling, was investigated in cod, the most commonly consumed fish species in Belgium. A total of 780 pre-packed belly flap samples destined for one branch of retail shops were collected from a Belgian wholesale company. To recover all larvae, each sample was first candled and thereafter enzymatically digested. Larvae were morphologically identified to the genus level and a subset was additionally molecularly confirmed by amplification of the ITS fragment and HinfI/HhaI enzyme restriction. The PCR/RFLP profiles of Contracaecum spp. were determined and confirmed with sequencing by the European Reference Laboratory for Parasites (Istituto Superiore di Sanità). The positivity rate of Anisakidae in the individual cod samples was 18% [95%-CI: 15–21%], with a mean intensity of one larva [range: 1–6]. Belly flaps were sold packed primarily by two, with a one-in-three chance of buying an infected package. Pseudoterranova spp. infections (single infections) were most frequently detected (positivity rate 9% [95%-CI: 7–11]), closely followed by Anisakis spp. (7% [95%-CI: 6–9]). Co-infections of Pseudoterranova spp. and Anisakis spp. comprised 8% of the infections, with a positivity rate of 1% [95%-CI: 1–3%]. All belly flaps reportedly were candled prior to our sampling, nonetheless our results indicated that an additional candling screening before packaging would identify an extra third of the infections and larvae. In 19 of the 139 infected samples, all larvae were recovered by the additional candling, thereby removing the infection risk for consumers. In conclusion, this study shows that cod belly flaps infected with zoonotic parasites reach the Belgian consumer. Although a second candling step at retail level could be helpful in reducing the consumer risk, additional measures are needed since 66% of infections would still remain undetected.
Keywords
Anisakis, Pseudoterranova, Anisakids, Belgium, Retail, Enzymatic digestion, Candling, Cod, FISH FILLETS, PSEUDOTERRANOVA-DECIPIENS, CONTRACAECUM-OSCULATUM, ENGRAULIS-ENCRASICOLUS, ZOONOTIC NEMATODES, INFECTION, SIMPLEX, MIGRATION, DIGESTION, ECOLOGY

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MLA
Mercken, Evelien, et al. “High Occurrence of Anisakidae at Retail Level in Cod (Gadus Morhua) Belly Flaps and the Impact of Extensive Candling.” FOOD AND WATERBORNE PARASITOLOGY, vol. 22, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.fawpar.2020.e00108.
APA
Mercken, E., Van Damme, I., Šoba Šparl, B., Vangeenberghe, S., Serradell, A., Lumain, J. P. L., … Gabriël, S. (2021). High occurrence of Anisakidae at retail level in cod (Gadus morhua) belly flaps and the impact of extensive candling. FOOD AND WATERBORNE PARASITOLOGY, 22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2020.e00108
Chicago author-date
Mercken, Evelien, Inge Van Damme, Barbara Šoba Šparl, Sandra Vangeenberghe, Anna Serradell, John Philip Lou Lumain, T. De Sterck, M. Lalle, and Sarah Gabriël. 2021. “High Occurrence of Anisakidae at Retail Level in Cod (Gadus Morhua) Belly Flaps and the Impact of Extensive Candling.” FOOD AND WATERBORNE PARASITOLOGY 22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2020.e00108.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mercken, Evelien, Inge Van Damme, Barbara Šoba Šparl, Sandra Vangeenberghe, Anna Serradell, John Philip Lou Lumain, T. De Sterck, M. Lalle, and Sarah Gabriël. 2021. “High Occurrence of Anisakidae at Retail Level in Cod (Gadus Morhua) Belly Flaps and the Impact of Extensive Candling.” FOOD AND WATERBORNE PARASITOLOGY 22. doi:10.1016/j.fawpar.2020.e00108.
Vancouver
1.
Mercken E, Van Damme I, Šoba Šparl B, Vangeenberghe S, Serradell A, Lumain JPL, et al. High occurrence of Anisakidae at retail level in cod (Gadus morhua) belly flaps and the impact of extensive candling. FOOD AND WATERBORNE PARASITOLOGY. 2021;22.
IEEE
[1]
E. Mercken et al., “High occurrence of Anisakidae at retail level in cod (Gadus morhua) belly flaps and the impact of extensive candling,” FOOD AND WATERBORNE PARASITOLOGY, vol. 22, 2021.
@article{8686869,
  abstract     = {{The presence of Anisakidae at retail level, after the routine screening via candling, was investigated in cod, the most commonly consumed fish species in Belgium. A total of 780 pre-packed belly flap samples destined for one branch of retail shops were collected from a Belgian wholesale company. To recover all larvae, each sample was first candled and thereafter enzymatically digested. Larvae were morphologically identified to the genus level and a subset was additionally molecularly confirmed by amplification of the ITS fragment and HinfI/HhaI enzyme restriction. The PCR/RFLP profiles of Contracaecum spp. were determined and confirmed with sequencing by the European Reference Laboratory for Parasites (Istituto Superiore di Sanità). The positivity rate of Anisakidae in the individual cod samples was 18% [95%-CI: 15–21%], with a mean intensity of one larva [range: 1–6]. Belly flaps were sold packed primarily by two, with a one-in-three chance of buying an infected package. Pseudoterranova spp. infections (single infections) were most frequently detected (positivity rate 9% [95%-CI: 7–11]), closely followed by Anisakis spp. (7% [95%-CI: 6–9]). Co-infections of Pseudoterranova spp. and Anisakis spp. comprised 8% of the infections, with a positivity rate of 1% [95%-CI: 1–3%]. All belly flaps reportedly were candled prior to our sampling, nonetheless our results indicated that an additional candling screening before packaging would identify an extra third of the infections and larvae. In 19 of the 139 infected samples, all larvae were recovered by the additional candling, thereby removing the infection risk for consumers. In conclusion, this study shows that cod belly flaps infected with zoonotic parasites reach the Belgian consumer. Although a second candling step at retail level could be helpful in reducing the consumer risk, additional measures are needed since 66% of infections would still remain undetected.}},
  articleno    = {{e00108}},
  author       = {{Mercken, Evelien and Van Damme, Inge and Šoba Šparl, Barbara and Vangeenberghe, Sandra and Serradell, Anna and Lumain, John Philip Lou and De Sterck, T. and Lalle, M. and Gabriël, Sarah}},
  issn         = {{2405-6766}},
  journal      = {{FOOD AND WATERBORNE PARASITOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Anisakis,Pseudoterranova,Anisakids,Belgium,Retail,Enzymatic digestion,Candling,Cod,FISH FILLETS,PSEUDOTERRANOVA-DECIPIENS,CONTRACAECUM-OSCULATUM,ENGRAULIS-ENCRASICOLUS,ZOONOTIC NEMATODES,INFECTION,SIMPLEX,MIGRATION,DIGESTION,ECOLOGY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{6}},
  title        = {{High occurrence of Anisakidae at retail level in cod (Gadus morhua) belly flaps and the impact of extensive candling}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2020.e00108}},
  volume       = {{22}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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