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Cost of fouling in full-scale reverse osmosis and nanofiltration installations in the Netherlands

(2021) DESALINATION. 500.
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Abstract
The economic impact of fouling in spiral wound membranes is not yet well explored. There has been an established assumption that the cost of fouling in membrane processes is significant, but this hypothesis has not been thoroughly evaluated. We conducted an economic analysis on seven full-scale installations, four nano filtration (NF) and three reverse osmosis (RO), to estimate the cost of fouling in industrial plants. The cost of fouling was calculated in detail, including costs of increase in feed channel pressure drop, water permeability reduction, early membrane replacement, and extensive cleaning-in-place (CIP). The estimated cost of fouling was expressed as a fraction of operational expenses (OPEX) for each plant and the major cost factors in fouling and CIP costs were identified. The selected NF plants were fed with anoxic ground water, while the feed water to RO plants was either surface water or municipal wastewater effluent. All the NF plants produce drinking water, while the RO plants produce demineralized water for industrial applications. We found that the cost of fouling in the RO plants was around 24% of OPEX, while the fouling related costs in NF cases was only around 11% due to the low biofouling potential of the anoxic ground water. The major factor in the cost of fouling is the early membrane replacement cost, followed by additional energy and with only a minor contribution from the cleaning costs. The down-time cost (caused by the interruption of water production during a CIP event) can be the major CIP cost factor for the plants with frequent cleaning events, while the cost of chemicals dominates in the plants with non-frequent CIP. In case of manual cleaning-in-place, the cost of fouling is increased by around 2% for the RO plants with frequent CIP. The manual execution of CIP cleaning is an attention point to reconsider, as the reviewed plants hold an automated CIP cleaning, providing membrane productivity advantages.
Keywords
fouling cost, Chemical cleaning, RO/NF, Full-scale plant, Economic analysis, PRESSURE-DROP INCREASE, MEMBRANE SYSTEMS, SURFACE MODIFICATIONS, HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE, PERFORMANCE, OPTIMIZATION, DESALINATION, PRETREATMENT, FLOW, ULTRAFILTRATION

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MLA
Jafari Eshlaghi, Mohammadreza, et al. “Cost of Fouling in Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Installations in the Netherlands.” DESALINATION, vol. 500, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.desal.2020.114865.
APA
Jafari Eshlaghi, M., Vanoppen, M., van Agtmaal, J. M. C., Cornelissen, E., Vrouwenvelder, J. S., Verliefde, A., … Picioreanu, C. (2021). Cost of fouling in full-scale reverse osmosis and nanofiltration installations in the Netherlands. DESALINATION, 500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2020.114865
Chicago author-date
Jafari Eshlaghi, Mohammadreza, Marjolein Vanoppen, J. M. C. van Agtmaal, Emile Cornelissen, J. S. Vrouwenvelder, Arne Verliefde, M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, and C. Picioreanu. 2021. “Cost of Fouling in Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Installations in the Netherlands.” DESALINATION 500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2020.114865.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Jafari Eshlaghi, Mohammadreza, Marjolein Vanoppen, J. M. C. van Agtmaal, Emile Cornelissen, J. S. Vrouwenvelder, Arne Verliefde, M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, and C. Picioreanu. 2021. “Cost of Fouling in Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Installations in the Netherlands.” DESALINATION 500. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2020.114865.
Vancouver
1.
Jafari Eshlaghi M, Vanoppen M, van Agtmaal JMC, Cornelissen E, Vrouwenvelder JS, Verliefde A, et al. Cost of fouling in full-scale reverse osmosis and nanofiltration installations in the Netherlands. DESALINATION. 2021;500.
IEEE
[1]
M. Jafari Eshlaghi et al., “Cost of fouling in full-scale reverse osmosis and nanofiltration installations in the Netherlands,” DESALINATION, vol. 500, 2021.
@article{8686178,
  abstract     = {{The economic impact of fouling in spiral wound membranes is not yet well explored. There has been an established assumption that the cost of fouling in membrane processes is significant, but this hypothesis has not been thoroughly evaluated. We conducted an economic analysis on seven full-scale installations, four nano filtration (NF) and three reverse osmosis (RO), to estimate the cost of fouling in industrial plants. The cost of fouling was calculated in detail, including costs of increase in feed channel pressure drop, water permeability reduction, early membrane replacement, and extensive cleaning-in-place (CIP). The estimated cost of fouling was expressed as a fraction of operational expenses (OPEX) for each plant and the major cost factors in fouling and CIP costs were identified.

The selected NF plants were fed with anoxic ground water, while the feed water to RO plants was either surface water or municipal wastewater effluent. All the NF plants produce drinking water, while the RO plants produce demineralized water for industrial applications. We found that the cost of fouling in the RO plants was around 24% of OPEX, while the fouling related costs in NF cases was only around 11% due to the low biofouling potential of the anoxic ground water. The major factor in the cost of fouling is the early membrane replacement cost, followed by additional energy and with only a minor contribution from the cleaning costs. The down-time cost (caused by the interruption of water production during a CIP event) can be the major CIP cost factor for the plants with frequent cleaning events, while the cost of chemicals dominates in the plants with non-frequent CIP. In case of manual cleaning-in-place, the cost of fouling is increased by around 2% for the RO plants with frequent CIP. The manual execution of CIP cleaning is an attention point to reconsider, as the reviewed plants hold an automated CIP cleaning, providing membrane productivity advantages.}},
  articleno    = {{114865}},
  author       = {{Jafari Eshlaghi, Mohammadreza and Vanoppen, Marjolein and van Agtmaal, J. M. C. and Cornelissen, Emile and Vrouwenvelder, J. S. and Verliefde, Arne and van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. and Picioreanu, C.}},
  issn         = {{0011-9164}},
  journal      = {{DESALINATION}},
  keywords     = {{fouling cost,Chemical cleaning,RO/NF,Full-scale plant,Economic analysis,PRESSURE-DROP INCREASE,MEMBRANE SYSTEMS,SURFACE MODIFICATIONS,HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE,PERFORMANCE,OPTIMIZATION,DESALINATION,PRETREATMENT,FLOW,ULTRAFILTRATION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Cost of fouling in full-scale reverse osmosis and nanofiltration installations in the Netherlands}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2020.114865}},
  volume       = {{500}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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