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Effect of selected cooking ingredients for nixtamalization on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize and Sorghum

(2021) TOXINS. 13(1).
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Abstract
Although previous studies have reported the use of nixtamalization for mycotoxins reduction in maize, the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and other nixtamalization cooking ingredients for mycotoxin reduction/decontamination in sorghum and other cereals still need to be determined. The current study investigated the effect of five nixtamalization cooking ingredients (wood ashes, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and calcium chloride) on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in artificially contaminated maize and sorghum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All tested cooking ingredients effectively reduced levels of mycotoxins in the contaminated samples with reduction initiated immediately after the washing step. Except for the calcium chloride nixtamal, levels of fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 in the processed sorghum nixtamal samples were below the limit of detection. Meanwhile, the lowest pH values were obtained from the maize (4.84; 4.99), as well as sorghum (4.83; 4.81) nejayote and nixtamal samples obtained via calcium chloride treatment. Overall, the results revealed that the tested cooking ingredients were effective in reducing the target mycotoxins. In addition, it pointed out the potential of calcium chloride, though with reduced effectiveness, as a possible greener alternative cooking ingredient (ecological nixtamalization) when there are environmental concerns caused by alkaline nejayote.
Keywords
Toxicology, Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis, cooking ingredients, food safety, Fusarium mycotoxins, LC-MS, MS, maize, nixtamalization, sorghum, food processing

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MLA
Odukoya, Julianah Olayemi, et al. “Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum.” TOXINS, vol. 13, no. 1, 2021, doi:10.3390/toxins13010027.
APA
Odukoya, J. O., De Saeger, S., De Boevre, M., Adegoke, G. O., Audenaert, K., Croubels, S., … Njobeh, P. B. (2021). Effect of selected cooking ingredients for nixtamalization on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize and Sorghum. TOXINS, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010027
Chicago author-date
Odukoya, Julianah Olayemi, Sarah De Saeger, Marthe De Boevre, Gabriel Olaniran Adegoke, Kris Audenaert, Siska Croubels, Gunther Antonissen, Karel Vermeulen, Sefater Gbashi, and Patrick Berka Njobeh. 2021. “Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum.” TOXINS 13 (1). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010027.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Odukoya, Julianah Olayemi, Sarah De Saeger, Marthe De Boevre, Gabriel Olaniran Adegoke, Kris Audenaert, Siska Croubels, Gunther Antonissen, Karel Vermeulen, Sefater Gbashi, and Patrick Berka Njobeh. 2021. “Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum.” TOXINS 13 (1). doi:10.3390/toxins13010027.
Vancouver
1.
Odukoya JO, De Saeger S, De Boevre M, Adegoke GO, Audenaert K, Croubels S, et al. Effect of selected cooking ingredients for nixtamalization on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize and Sorghum. TOXINS. 2021;13(1).
IEEE
[1]
J. O. Odukoya et al., “Effect of selected cooking ingredients for nixtamalization on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize and Sorghum,” TOXINS, vol. 13, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8686064,
  abstract     = {{Although previous studies have reported the use of nixtamalization for mycotoxins reduction in maize, the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and other nixtamalization cooking ingredients for mycotoxin reduction/decontamination in sorghum and other cereals still need to be determined. The current study investigated the effect of five nixtamalization cooking ingredients (wood ashes, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and calcium chloride) on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in artificially contaminated maize and sorghum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All tested cooking ingredients effectively reduced levels of mycotoxins in the contaminated samples with reduction initiated immediately after the washing step. Except for the calcium chloride nixtamal, levels of fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 in the processed sorghum nixtamal samples were below the limit of detection. Meanwhile, the lowest pH values were obtained from the maize (4.84; 4.99), as well as sorghum (4.83; 4.81) nejayote and nixtamal samples obtained via calcium chloride treatment. Overall, the results revealed that the tested cooking ingredients were effective in reducing the target mycotoxins. In addition, it pointed out the potential of calcium chloride, though with reduced effectiveness, as a possible greener alternative cooking ingredient (ecological nixtamalization) when there are environmental concerns caused by alkaline nejayote.}},
  articleno    = {{27}},
  author       = {{Odukoya, Julianah Olayemi and De Saeger, Sarah and De Boevre, Marthe and Adegoke, Gabriel Olaniran and Audenaert, Kris and Croubels, Siska and Antonissen, Gunther and Vermeulen, Karel and Gbashi, Sefater and Njobeh, Patrick Berka}},
  issn         = {{2072-6651}},
  journal      = {{TOXINS}},
  keywords     = {{Toxicology,Health,Toxicology and Mutagenesis,cooking ingredients,food safety,Fusarium mycotoxins,LC-MS,MS,maize,nixtamalization,sorghum,food processing}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Effect of selected cooking ingredients for nixtamalization on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize and Sorghum}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010027}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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