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Microbial and dietary factors associated with the Equol and 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotypes

Selin Bolca (UGent) , Sam Possemiers (UGent) , Willy Verstraete (UGent) , Tom Van de Wiele (UGent) , Arne Heyerick (UGent) , Denis De Keukeleire (UGent) , Inge Huybrechts (UGent) , Stefaan De Henauw (UGent) , Herman Depypere (UGent) and Marc Bracke (UGent)
(2009) Acta Horticulturae. 848. p.235-246
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Abstract
The importance of the gut microbiota in the phyto-oestrogen bioavailability and bioactivity has been convincingly demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Equol, a microbial metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, is more bioactive than its precursor, and has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. Analogously, the weakly oestrogenic hop prenylflavonoid isoxanthohumol can be demethylated to the very potent phyto-oestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). However, these bioactivations are characterised by large inter-individual variation. The question why these phyto-oestrogen-bioactivating microbial populations colonised only 30-50% of the population, remains unanswered. Therefore, microbial and dietary factors associated with the ability to produce equol or 8-PN were studied in a dietary intervention trial with 150 healthy menopausal women. After a 4-d washout, subjects delivered urine and faecal samples. Next, they started a 5-d treatment with either soymilk, soy germ or hop extract and collected on the last day 24-h urine samples. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to estimate the usual fat (total fat, saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acid), fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes. Based on the urinary excretion profiles subjects were phenotyped as poor, moderate and strong equol or 8-PN producers. The equol production correlated negatively with Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectale counts and positively with the abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Recent antibiotic therapy seemed to affect the 8-PN production negatively. Furthermore, strong equol producers reported higher poly-unsaturated fatty acid and alcohol intakes, whereas strong 8-PN producers consumed less alcohol and more theobromine.
Keywords
LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, soy, hops, phyto-oestrogens, gut flora, microbial bio-activation, dietary intervention, HUMULUS-LUPULUS L., FOOD-FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE, POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN, PHYTO-ESTROGENS, METABOLIZING PHENOTYPES, PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN, URINARY-EXCRETION, LIVER-MICROSOMES, POTENT PHYTOESTROGEN

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Chicago
Bolca, Selin, Sam Possemiers, Willy Verstraete, Tom Van de Wiele, Arne Heyerick, Denis De Keukeleire, Inge Huybrechts, Stefaan De Henauw, Herman Depypere, and Marc Bracke. 2009. “Microbial and Dietary Factors Associated with the Equol and 8-prenylnaringenin Producer Phenotypes.” In Acta Horticulturae, ed. Denis De Keukeleire and KE Hummer, 848:235–246. Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS).
APA
Bolca, S., Possemiers, S., Verstraete, W., Van de Wiele, T., Heyerick, A., De Keukeleire, D., Huybrechts, I., et al. (2009). Microbial and dietary factors associated with the Equol and 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotypes. In D. De Keukeleire & K. Hummer (Eds.), Acta Horticulturae (Vol. 848, pp. 235–246). Presented at the 2nd International Humulus Symposium, Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS).
Vancouver
1.
Bolca S, Possemiers S, Verstraete W, Van de Wiele T, Heyerick A, De Keukeleire D, et al. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the Equol and 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotypes. In: De Keukeleire D, Hummer K, editors. Acta Horticulturae. Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS); 2009. p. 235–46.
MLA
Bolca, Selin, Sam Possemiers, Willy Verstraete, et al. “Microbial and Dietary Factors Associated with the Equol and 8-prenylnaringenin Producer Phenotypes.” Acta Horticulturae. Ed. Denis De Keukeleire & KE Hummer. Vol. 848. Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), 2009. 235–246. Print.
@inproceedings{868531,
  abstract     = {The importance of the gut microbiota in the phyto-oestrogen bioavailability and bioactivity has been convincingly demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Equol, a microbial metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, is more bioactive than its precursor, and has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. Analogously, the weakly oestrogenic hop prenylflavonoid isoxanthohumol can be demethylated to the very potent phyto-oestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). However, these bioactivations are characterised by large inter-individual variation. The question why these phyto-oestrogen-bioactivating microbial populations colonised only 30-50\% of the population, remains unanswered. Therefore, microbial and dietary factors associated with the ability to produce equol or 8-PN were studied in a dietary intervention trial with 150 healthy menopausal women. After a 4-d washout, subjects delivered urine and faecal samples. Next, they started a 5-d treatment with either soymilk, soy germ or hop extract and collected on the last day 24-h urine samples. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to estimate the usual fat (total fat, saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acid), fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes. Based on the urinary excretion profiles subjects were phenotyped as poor, moderate and strong equol or 8-PN producers. The equol production correlated negatively with Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectale counts and positively with the abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Recent antibiotic therapy seemed to affect the 8-PN production negatively. Furthermore, strong equol producers reported higher poly-unsaturated fatty acid and alcohol intakes, whereas strong 8-PN producers consumed less alcohol and more theobromine.},
  author       = {Bolca, Selin and Possemiers, Sam and Verstraete, Willy and Van de Wiele, Tom and Heyerick, Arne and De Keukeleire, Denis and Huybrechts, Inge and De Henauw, Stefaan and Depypere, Herman and Bracke, Marc},
  booktitle    = {Acta Horticulturae},
  editor       = {De Keukeleire, Denis and Hummer, KE},
  isbn         = {9789066057227},
  issn         = {0567-7572},
  keyword      = {LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY,soy,hops,phyto-oestrogens,gut flora,microbial bio-activation,dietary intervention,HUMULUS-LUPULUS L.,FOOD-FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE,POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN,PHYTO-ESTROGENS,METABOLIZING PHENOTYPES,PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN,URINARY-EXCRETION,LIVER-MICROSOMES,POTENT PHYTOESTROGEN},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Ghent, Belgium},
  pages        = {235--246},
  publisher    = {International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS)},
  title        = {Microbial and dietary factors associated with the Equol and 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotypes},
  volume       = {848},
  year         = {2009},
}

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