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Evaluation of the agreement between Brix refractometry and serum immunoglobulin concentration in neonatal piglets

Alexandra Schoos (UGent) , Ward De Spiegelaere (UGent) , An Cools (UGent) , Bart Pardon (UGent) , Elena Van Audenhove, Elise Bernaerdt (UGent) , Geert Janssens (UGent) and Dominiek Maes (UGent)
(2021) ANIMAL. 15(1).
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Abstract
Neonatal piglets lack immunoglobulins at birth. Sufficient colostrum intake (CI) and immunoglobulin absorption are essential for an appropriate passive transfer of immunity via the colostrum. Most methods to measure immunoglobulins in serum of piglets are labour-intensive, expensive or imprecise and not designed for on-farm use. The present diagnostic test study evaluated digital Brix refractometry to measure immunoglobulins in serum of neonatal piglets and to suggest thresholds for different serum immunoglobulin concentration. Additionally, agreements between Brix refractometry and optical refractometer (serum total protein, STP) and between Brix refractometry and ELISA (immunoglobulin G. IgG) were also investigated. Forty-five sows and 269 piglets from three different farms were enrolled in the study. Piglets were weighed at birth and 24 h later to calculate the Cl. Serum was collected at 24 h after birth and analysed for STP, gamma-globulins (electrophoresis), % Brix and IgG. In piglets, median (interquartile range, IQR) CI was 412 (196) g per piglet Median (IQR) STP, gamma-globulin and % Brix concentrations in piglet serum were 60 (11) g/L, 35 (10) g/L and 8 (2) %, respectively. Average (+/- SD) IgG concentration was 49 +/- 23 g/L Passing-Bablok regression revealed a strong concordance between % Brix and STP (Kendall's tau (T): 0.620, P < 0.0001, n = 267) and % Brix and gamma-globulin concentration (Kendall's T: 0.575, P < 0.0001, n = 267). The agreement between the Brix refractometer and IgG concentration was poor (Kendall's T: 0267, P < 0.0001, n = 269). Receiver operating characteristic curves were performed to evaluate test characteristics of Brix refractometry for three gamma-globulin cut-off values, i.e. 10, 20 and 30 g/L. The % Brix cut-off values resulting in the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity were 5.4 (100 and 985%), 7.0 (100 and 89.3%) and 7.9 (90.1 and 80.6%), respectively. In conclusion. digital Brix refractometry is a sufficiently fast and practical method to assess serum gamma-globulin concentrations in neonatal piglets on-farm and to evaluate them by considering the thresholds found in this study. Further studies are needed to validate those thresholds regarding piglet's survival in the pre-weaning period. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Animal Consortium.
Keywords
Animal Science and Zoology, Colostrum intake, On-farm, Survival, Swine, gamma-globulin

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MLA
Schoos, Alexandra, et al. “Evaluation of the Agreement between Brix Refractometry and Serum Immunoglobulin Concentration in Neonatal Piglets.” ANIMAL, vol. 15, no. 1, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.animal.2020.100041.
APA
Schoos, A., De Spiegelaere, W., Cools, A., Pardon, B., Van Audenhove, E., Bernaerdt, E., … Maes, D. (2021). Evaluation of the agreement between Brix refractometry and serum immunoglobulin concentration in neonatal piglets. ANIMAL, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2020.100041
Chicago author-date
Schoos, Alexandra, Ward De Spiegelaere, An Cools, Bart Pardon, Elena Van Audenhove, Elise Bernaerdt, Geert Janssens, and Dominiek Maes. 2021. “Evaluation of the Agreement between Brix Refractometry and Serum Immunoglobulin Concentration in Neonatal Piglets.” ANIMAL 15 (1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2020.100041.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schoos, Alexandra, Ward De Spiegelaere, An Cools, Bart Pardon, Elena Van Audenhove, Elise Bernaerdt, Geert Janssens, and Dominiek Maes. 2021. “Evaluation of the Agreement between Brix Refractometry and Serum Immunoglobulin Concentration in Neonatal Piglets.” ANIMAL 15 (1). doi:10.1016/j.animal.2020.100041.
Vancouver
1.
Schoos A, De Spiegelaere W, Cools A, Pardon B, Van Audenhove E, Bernaerdt E, et al. Evaluation of the agreement between Brix refractometry and serum immunoglobulin concentration in neonatal piglets. ANIMAL. 2021;15(1).
IEEE
[1]
A. Schoos et al., “Evaluation of the agreement between Brix refractometry and serum immunoglobulin concentration in neonatal piglets,” ANIMAL, vol. 15, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8684470,
  abstract     = {{Neonatal piglets lack immunoglobulins at birth. Sufficient colostrum intake (CI) and immunoglobulin absorption are essential for an appropriate passive transfer of immunity via the colostrum. Most methods to measure immunoglobulins in serum of piglets are labour-intensive, expensive or imprecise and not designed for on-farm use. The present diagnostic test study evaluated digital Brix refractometry to measure immunoglobulins in serum of neonatal piglets and to suggest thresholds for different serum immunoglobulin concentration. Additionally, agreements between Brix refractometry and optical refractometer (serum total protein, STP) and between Brix refractometry and ELISA (immunoglobulin G. IgG) were also investigated. Forty-five sows and 269 piglets from three different farms were enrolled in the study. Piglets were weighed at birth and 24 h later to calculate the Cl. Serum was collected at 24 h after birth and analysed for STP, gamma-globulins (electrophoresis), % Brix and IgG. In piglets, median (interquartile range, IQR) CI was 412 (196) g per piglet Median (IQR) STP, gamma-globulin and % Brix concentrations in piglet serum were 60 (11) g/L, 35 (10) g/L and 8 (2) %, respectively. Average (+/- SD) IgG concentration was 49 +/- 23 g/L Passing-Bablok regression revealed a strong concordance between % Brix and STP (Kendall's tau (T): 0.620, P < 0.0001, n = 267) and % Brix and gamma-globulin concentration (Kendall's T: 0.575, P < 0.0001, n = 267). The agreement between the Brix refractometer and IgG concentration was poor (Kendall's T: 0267, P < 0.0001, n = 269). Receiver operating characteristic curves were performed to evaluate test characteristics of Brix refractometry for three gamma-globulin cut-off values, i.e. 10, 20 and 30 g/L. The % Brix cut-off values resulting in the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity were 5.4 (100 and 985%), 7.0 (100 and 89.3%) and 7.9 (90.1 and 80.6%), respectively. In conclusion. digital Brix refractometry is a sufficiently fast and practical method to assess serum gamma-globulin concentrations in neonatal piglets on-farm and to evaluate them by considering the thresholds found in this study. Further studies are needed to validate those thresholds regarding piglet's survival in the pre-weaning period. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Animal Consortium.}},
  articleno    = {{100041}},
  author       = {{Schoos, Alexandra and De Spiegelaere, Ward and Cools, An and Pardon, Bart and Van Audenhove, Elena and Bernaerdt, Elise and Janssens, Geert and Maes, Dominiek}},
  issn         = {{1751-7311}},
  journal      = {{ANIMAL}},
  keywords     = {{Animal Science and Zoology,Colostrum intake,On-farm,Survival,Swine,gamma-globulin}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{8}},
  title        = {{Evaluation of the agreement between Brix refractometry and serum immunoglobulin concentration in neonatal piglets}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2020.100041}},
  volume       = {{15}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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