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Instant killing of pathogenic chytrid fungi by disposable nitrile gloves prevents disease transmission between amphibians

Valarie Thomas (UGent) , Pascale Van Rooij (UGent) , Celine Meerpoel (UGent) , Gwij Stegen (UGent) , Jella Wauters (UGent) , Lynn Vanhaecke (UGent) , An Martel (UGent) and Frank Pasmans (UGent)
(2020) PLOS ONE. 15(10).
Author
Organization
Abstract
To prevent transmission of the pathogenic chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), hygiene protocols prescribe the single use of disposable gloves for handling amphibians. We discovered that rinse water from nitrile gloves instantly kills 99% of Bd and Bsal zoospores. Transmission experiments using midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) and Bd, and Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and Bsal, show that the use of the same pair of gloves for 2 subsequent individuals does not result in significant transmission of any chytrid fungus. In contrast, handling infected amphibians bare-handed caused transmission of Bsal in 4 out of 10 replicates, but did not result in transmission of Bd. Based on the manufacturer’s information, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and colorimetric tests, calcium lactate and calcium nitrate were identified as compounds with antifungal activity against both Bd and Bsal. These findings corroborate the importance of wearing gloves as an important sanitary measure in amphibian disease prevention. If the highly recommended single use of gloves is not possible, handling multiple post-metamorphic amphibians with the same pair of nitrile gloves should still be preferred above bare-handed manipulation.
Keywords
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, General Medicine, REAL-TIME PCR, BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS, CALCIUM LACTATE, SP-NOV, SALAMANDRIVORANS, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, NITRATE, LATEX, MORTALITY, EXPOSURE

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MLA
Thomas, Valarie, et al. “Instant Killing of Pathogenic Chytrid Fungi by Disposable Nitrile Gloves Prevents Disease Transmission between Amphibians.” PLOS ONE, vol. 15, no. 10, 2020, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241048.
APA
Thomas, V., Van Rooij, P., Meerpoel, C., Stegen, G., Wauters, J., Vanhaecke, L., … Pasmans, F. (2020). Instant killing of pathogenic chytrid fungi by disposable nitrile gloves prevents disease transmission between amphibians. PLOS ONE, 15(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241048
Chicago author-date
Thomas, Valarie, Pascale Van Rooij, Celine Meerpoel, Gwij Stegen, Jella Wauters, Lynn Vanhaecke, An Martel, and Frank Pasmans. 2020. “Instant Killing of Pathogenic Chytrid Fungi by Disposable Nitrile Gloves Prevents Disease Transmission between Amphibians.” PLOS ONE 15 (10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241048.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Thomas, Valarie, Pascale Van Rooij, Celine Meerpoel, Gwij Stegen, Jella Wauters, Lynn Vanhaecke, An Martel, and Frank Pasmans. 2020. “Instant Killing of Pathogenic Chytrid Fungi by Disposable Nitrile Gloves Prevents Disease Transmission between Amphibians.” PLOS ONE 15 (10). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241048.
Vancouver
1.
Thomas V, Van Rooij P, Meerpoel C, Stegen G, Wauters J, Vanhaecke L, et al. Instant killing of pathogenic chytrid fungi by disposable nitrile gloves prevents disease transmission between amphibians. PLOS ONE. 2020;15(10).
IEEE
[1]
V. Thomas et al., “Instant killing of pathogenic chytrid fungi by disposable nitrile gloves prevents disease transmission between amphibians,” PLOS ONE, vol. 15, no. 10, 2020.
@article{8683710,
  abstract     = {{To prevent transmission of the pathogenic chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), hygiene protocols prescribe the single use of disposable gloves for handling amphibians. We discovered that rinse water from nitrile gloves instantly kills 99% of Bd and Bsal zoospores. Transmission experiments using midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) and Bd, and Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and Bsal, show that the use of the same pair of gloves for 2 subsequent individuals does not result in significant transmission of any chytrid fungus. In contrast, handling infected amphibians bare-handed caused transmission of Bsal in 4 out of 10 replicates, but did not result in transmission of Bd. Based on the manufacturer’s information, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and colorimetric tests, calcium lactate and calcium nitrate were identified as compounds with antifungal activity against both Bd and Bsal. These findings corroborate the importance of wearing gloves as an important sanitary measure in amphibian disease prevention. If the highly recommended single use of gloves is not possible, handling multiple post-metamorphic amphibians with the same pair of nitrile gloves should still be preferred above bare-handed manipulation.}},
  articleno    = {{e0241048}},
  author       = {{Thomas, Valarie and Van Rooij, Pascale and Meerpoel, Celine and Stegen, Gwij and Wauters, Jella and Vanhaecke, Lynn and Martel, An and Pasmans, Frank}},
  issn         = {{1932-6203}},
  journal      = {{PLOS ONE}},
  keywords     = {{General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology,General Agricultural and Biological Sciences,General Medicine,REAL-TIME PCR,BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS,CALCIUM LACTATE,SP-NOV,SALAMANDRIVORANS,CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,NITRATE,LATEX,MORTALITY,EXPOSURE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{10}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Instant killing of pathogenic chytrid fungi by disposable nitrile gloves prevents disease transmission between amphibians}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241048}},
  volume       = {{15}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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